DAVID MUTIMER, Prof. Political Science York University, 2000; THE WEAPONS STATEPROLIFERATION AND THE FRAMING OF SECURITY // VT2002 acs p. 163

ABM antiballistic missile (treaty): ABMs are systems designed to destroy ballistic missiles in flight; they were restricted and then eliminated by the United States and the USSR in the ABM treaty.

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (U.S.): Agency within the U.S. State Department responsible for arms control.

Australia Group supplier control group that controls technology related to chemical and biological weapons.

BTWC Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: Agreement banning the production, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons. Sometimes referred to as BWC.

BW biological weapons

CCW Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons: Also known as the Inhumane Weapons Convention; governs the use of a number of weapons judged to be excessively injurious.

CD Conference on Disarmament: Multilateral arms control and disarmament conference, which meets three times a year in Geneva; negotiated the CWC and the CTBT.

CFE conventional forces in Europe: Talks following from MBFR concerning conventional arms control in Europe; produced a treaty of the same name limiting those forces in 1990.

COCOM Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls: Supplier control group composed mainly of NATO members controlling the export of high technology to the Eastern bloc during the Cold War.

CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, a periodic conference that ran from 1973 until 1990,

bringing together all the states of Europe to discuss matters of security, economic cooperation, and human rights. It was replaced in 1990 by the OSCE.

CTBT comprehensive test ban treaty: Agreement banning all forms of nuclear testing for all time in all environments.

CW chemical weapons

CWC chemical weapons convention: Agreement banning the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons.

ENDC Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference: Precursor to the CD.

G-7 Group of Seven

G-8 Group of Eight

IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency: International governmental organization mandated by the NPT to put safeguards on the nuclear energy programs of all states party to the NPT.

INF Intermediate -Range Nuclear Forces Treaty: A treaty between the United States and USSR, signed in 1997, which eliminated all intermediate -range nuclear missiles from Europe. It is hailed as the first treaty to have eliminated an entire class of weapons.

IR international relations

LTBT Limited Test Ban Treaty (also known as the Partial Test Ban Treaty [PTBT]): Bans nuclear tests in any environment other than underground.

MAD mutual assured destruction: The condition in which both sides of a possible nuclear conflict could retain sufficient weapons to destroy the other side even after an all-out nuclear attack.

MBFR mutual and balanced force reduction: Cold War-era negotiations on conventional arms control in Europe; replaced by the CFE.

MIRV multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle: System that allowed a single ballistic missile to deliver warheads to a number of discrete designated targets; first developed by the United States in the 1960s.

MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime: Supplier control group that controls technology related to ballistic missiles.

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NNWS nonnuclear weapon state: A party to the NPT other than the five accepted nuclear weapon states.

NPT nuclear nonproliferation treaty: Opened for signature in 1968, entered into force in 1970, extended indefinitely in 1995.

NSG Nuclear Suppliers Group: Nuclear supplier control group whose members are not necessarily party to the NPT.

NWS nuclear weapon state: One of the five states accepted by the NPT as possessing nuclear weapons because they tested those weapons before the NPT was signed.

OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: An organization of 29 of the world's richest states, which discusses and develops social and economic policy.

OPCW Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons: Executive body of the Chemical Weapons Convention; includes the Technical Secretariat, whose function is to verify the CWC.

OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: Formal organization created out of the CSCE in 1990 by the Treaty of Paris.

P-5 The five permanent members of the UN Security Council.

PNE peaceful nuclear explosion: Nuclear explosion used for civilian purposes rather than as a weapon or a weapon test; India claims its 1974 test was of a PNE.

PRC People's Republic of China

R&D research and development

SALT strategic arms limitation treaty (talks): Nuclear arms control discussions and agreements between the United States and the USSR in the 1970s; produced two sets of agreements-the interim agreement (SALT 1) and SALT II.

SDI Strategic Defense Initiative (or Star Wars): U.S. program to develop a comprehensive ballistic missile defense system, which would be largely space based.

SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: Leading independent research body concerned with issues of weapons production, transfer, and control.

START strategic arms reduction treaty (talks): Nuclear arms control discussions and agreements between the United States and the USSR and its successors beginning in the 1980s; has produced agreements on the reduction rather than the limitation of nuclear arsenals.

TTBT threshold test ban treaty: Places a maximum limit of 150 kilotons on underground nuclear tests.

UNGA United Nations General Assembly

UNSCOM United Nations Special Commission: Body created by the UN Security Council to implement the provisions of the cease-fire resolution with Iraq (Resolution 687 [19911) concerning the destruction of Iraqi weapons capabilities.

VEREX Verification Experts Committee: Special committee established by the states party to the BTWC to create legally binding obligations and verification procedures.

Wassenaar supplier control group controlling conventional weapons Arrangement technology.

WMD weapons of mass destruction: Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons; sometimes called ABC or NBC weapons for atomic or nuclear and biological and chemical weapons.

Zangger nuclear supplier control group whose members are all Committee party to the NPT.