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An Exploration Of The Dubbers, Deejays and Toasters Of The Late 1960s - 1980's Jamaican Style Music

Heather Marie Saunders

April 1998

Why don't they ever say: 'There's King Tubby Smoking On His Musical Spliff?'

Relatively new to the Jamaican music scene in the musical explosion of the 1970s, which consisted of a new musical format known as 'dub,' the deejays and toasters expressed lyrical playgrounds which would push this form of music over the edge like a waterfall. So influential, it still lingers around in the present day. It is quite complex in understanding each role the individuals who comprised of what was called the"sound system,"however, they were some of the most innovative and clever musicians. Names like Prince Jammy, King Tubby, U Roy, Prince Far I and Augustus Pablo, just some of the many, create a magical feeling of curiosity and love inside for whomever listens to their music. Unity in diversity,"out of many one people"-- the Jamaican national motto, is so accurate it bears truth even in the professions people pursue. (Bayer 6) Each person so different in style, humor and technique link back together in unity trough a common thread: brotherhood while in the depths of despair and violence. In order to best explain the significance of the deejays, dubbers and toasters, this essay will analytically assess the function, some of the"masters"and elements of zaniness many of these musicians possess.
Further, to enhance the meaning to the words written here in this analysis, a cassette tape has been provided. This cassette tape contains studio recordings, with the exception of a live track by the legendary Prince Far I. These recordings are important to listen to during the corresponding times. To best understand how powerful the dub is or whatµ the deejays/toasters voice sounds like, which I think is important, this cassette will, in my opinion, contains some of the greatest music of all time. So sit back, relax, listen and read. You are about to begin a musical exploration like never before.

I. The Sound System. . . where it all began.

The sound system itself was perhaps the most important creation socially, musically and economically for Jamaican musicians. The sound system gave those who did not have access to a radio, and few did, an opportunity to listen to the hottest tracks of American R&B. American R&B had become quite popular on the island after World War II. The sound system in the yearly years comprised of"one record track, a valve amp and the largest commercially available speakers."For those with radios, stations were broadcasted from the southern states, for example"WLAC of Nashville, WINZ in Miami, and WONE in New Orleans."In addition, American R&B came to Jamaica by"returning seasonal migrant workers and by merchant sailors visiting Jamaica."(Barrow and Dalton 11)
The sound system, however, began to develop rapidly, just as a child does."Really emerg(ing) as a cultural force with independence from Britain in 1962,"the sound system would"quasi-accedentially"develop a musical sound like no-other. (White 33) This music form would adopt the name"dub."
Musically, the sound system provided both a playing field and visual for future vocalists and engineers; perhaps, for the first time. Controlled by"two technocrats the deejay and the selector, whose job was similar to that of a radio station engineer,"the sound system was a portable unit, traveling in the fashion of a disco party. Vocally, the sound system allowed for the emergence of the"deejay"whose job was done"between records filling in with fast moving introductions and improvisations. At the same time he would bring important news to the people."(Bayer 63) Electronically, the job of the selector has nothing to do with his own vocals. Rather, the selector, who would take on the name"Dubber,"was concerned with mixing either the singer of the track or deejays voice. (Ehrlich 105)
In addition, the sound system was important socially and economically. As Prince Buster, a former boxer turned deejay, explains"there was no radio in those days and the sound system was everything. To hear a new record thousands would go to the dances."(Davis 101) Here people would get together, dance, smoke the holy ganja and talk about important issues (political and non-political) at the time. Economically, the sound system conquered the danse-halls. Above and beyond the access to the"latest and hottest R&B,"producer Bunny Lee describes the sound systemÆ economically advantageous as follows:

Y'see, after the orchestra play all an hour, dem stop fi a break, an' dem eat off all the curry goat, an' drink off all the liquor. So the promoter never mek no profit - dem did prove too expensive fi the dance promoter. Den alone eat a pot of goat! So when sound come now, the sound no tek no break. When these few sound system come, it was something different. . . (Barrow and Dalton 11)

As you can see, the sound system offered a place of creativity for both the deejay and engineer while maintaining to be a socially and economically an uplifting organization.

II. What is Dub Music?

Dub means raw riddim.
Dub jus' mean raw music, nuttin' water-down.
--King Jammy (Barrow, February 1994)

Now what the engineer of the sound system created, a musical explosion of sound, beat and bass otherwise known as dub, was a sound new to the musical scene. Dub music is both a reflection of the past and a unique musical force. Historically, dub was simply the genius of the engineer who mixed the music to emphasis particular instruments. This innovation demonstrated the technological sophistication which had been harnessed in the promotion of the culture of resistance, and the dub version was a non- verbal form of communication reminiscent of the intense drumming of the slaves. (Campbell 139)

Often described as psychedelic music, dub music as a force,"however, was a contrivance of studio technique, not musical arrangement."Jamaican engineers were extending the bass-and-drum texture to"make it the main body of their B-side mixes, replacing the vocals as the center of attention."(Ehrlich 106) This unparalleled texture was called"dub,"a derivative of"recording lingo for copying of"dubs"or (doubles) of tapes."(Ehrilch 106) King Tubby, the originator of dub music, was"(a tinkerer with electronics throughout his life) who first put two and two together, added some echo, to make six. . .six. . .six. . ."(Glanvill 1) This quotation really exemplifies dub music in words.
Although dub frequently appears on record sleeves and labels outside the regular reggae market, the history of this musical style is really the history of the Jamaican producers.

Through the years these men, often sound system operators or engineers turned producers, have set the course for the development of new sounds and changes in the direction of reggae music. When they started to rework the instrumental versions featured on the B-sides of 7"(records), these versions became known as dubs."(A History of Dub - The Golden Age)

Furthermore, dub music goes beyond the cut and dry explanation. As Luke Ehrlich explains,

If reggae is Africa in the New World, then dub must be Africa on the moon. . dub is a kaleidoscopic musical montage which takes sounds originally intended as in·terlocking parts of another arrangement and using them as raw material, converts them into new and different sounds; then, in its own rhythm and format, it continually reshuffles these new sounds into unusual juxtapositions. (106)

Perhaps this is my favorite definition, besides the opening quotation by King Jammy, because it leaves the air open for electronic inventiveness for future producers.

III. Dub Masters, And Their Music.

So thriving, fresh, and pulsating was dub music the producers of the music became"Kings","Princes"and"Scientists"-- names of the elite. And, elite these musicians are, masters of music. To best explain dub music, assessing the style and listening to the music of two of these masters is essential. It is here where the music cassette provided begins.
Born Osborne Ruddock in 1941, the late King Tubby self-constructed his own sound system by the late 1960s and called it Home Town Hi-Fi. (Glanvill 1) So golden a musician,"when it comes to Dub Music, the name that first comes to mind is the Great King Tubby. He is solely responsible for the initiation of what today is called Dub Music."(Mack 1) King Tubby,"ironically,"David Rodigan explains,"was not fat, not even tubby, and his quiet, unassuming manner was a stark contrast to the wild, mind bending dubs he created."(June 1996) Unbelievingly, however, the popular style of music he created, difficult to believe, was"pioneered in a tiny studio at 18 Dromilly Avenue in the Kingston district called Waterhouse."(Barrow, February 1994) Always under fierce competition from other engineers, King Tubby had to continuously keep his musical tricks up-to date, working in both the studio and the dance-hall. However, this was difficult due to pure economics. As King Jammy, an apprentice to Tubby, explains:

When I was at King Tubby's studio mixin' dubs, a lotta those equipment, King Tubby build those 'imself, yunno what i mean? If 'im don't build most a them, im' jus' improvise on them an' mek them different from the original, so we had something different. The reverb unit that we used to use there, it was a Fisher reverb, an' we change it up to become a King Tubby and Fisher! [laughs]. The slides that we use' to use, we change them from the original slides, because the mixin' console was so old you couldn't get replacement parts for it. We use other models to incorporate in that console. (Barrow, May 1996)

King Tubby's studio work was so popular that 8many producers became more and more interested in working with the master. Bunny Lee, Lee Perry, Glen Brown and Augustus Pablo, who only played dub on his instruments called a melodica , began working with Tubby and supplied him with hundreds of rhythms. (Barrow, February 1994) The first to incorporate vocals over the dub, King Tubby began to mix in vocals of artists chanting Rastafarian beliefs and various Jamaican tracks/rythms at the time. Although the voice is unknown, the dub"Dreada Version"(Side A, Song #1) off the album Dub Gone Crazy, is just a sample of Tubby dubbing out Rasta chants. Although not a Rastafarian himself, King Tubby was very much surrounded and immersed with the faith. As Cornell Campbell in 1975 stated,"I went to a dance in a Greenwich Farm King Tubby's and the dreads was there. There was dread, dread, dread an' dread. An' natty roots everywhere."(Greenwich Farm: RubaDub)
King Tubby began working with other sound systems, mixing up the producer's cut. A explosive example of this is King Tubby's cooperation on tracks produced by Bertram Brown, founder of Freedom Sounds. Freedom Sounds began in the ghetto of Greenwich Town, Western Kingston, in 1975. . .Often Bertram and friends would have to lock themselves in with Tubby - the studio was located near to a gully which marked the boundary between two warring political zones. . . Check for, example, the dub to Prince Alla's 'Stone', (Side A, Song #2) here called 'Great Stone.' (Side A, Song #3) Tubbs himself contributed the rolling thunder effect to this stunning mix. Bertram recalls asking King Tubby to"Roll the stone, Tubbs, roll the stone"during the mix. This dub prefigures the so-called"jungle"style with its startling use of delay to create a double speed rhythm. It's one of Tubby's best-ever mixes and a defining moment in the history of dub."(Barrow, April 1996)

In conclusion and tribute to the master, Steve Barrow provides a eloquent and perfect expression on the Great King Tubby. It is here that I too pay my respects, as I will again in this essay. He explains,

"But tragedy struck on the early morning of the 6th of February 1989: after leaving the studio in Waterhouse, King Tubby was murdered by a lone gunman outside his home at 85 Sherlock Crescent in nearby Duhaney Park, and Jamaican music lost one of its most influential talents. The gunman has never been identified, let alone brought to justice. Nevertheless, Tubby's innovations continue to resonate to this day; the dub remixes he pioneered constitute his living legacy to popular music culture world wide and changed the way we listen to it. He was the dub organizer."(Barrow, February 1994)

Born Hopeton"Overton"Brown, a man called"Scientist"would become a music legenñd as well. Born in Kingston on the 18th April 1960, Scientist"living in the Harbor View district of Kingston gained skills in basic electronics from his father who was a TV and radio repairman."(Barrow, April 1996) These skills were soon in high demand by local engineers, including King Tubby. Soon thereafter, Scientist would become an apprentice to Tubby. Scientist on how the two met, introduced first by a mutual friend doing Tubby a welding job, explains:

After going to Tubby's, buying parts from him like transformers, I use to tell 'im:"Hey Tubby's, I can do that sort of work,"and he used to laugh it off and say:"You're a little kid-- you know a lot of big men come here and take years and they still can't do it."So he had some extra work that he need done in the shop, windin' transformers, repairin' televisions, he would ask me to help. Then we developÇ a friendship and he made me a bet one day, when Jammy's was in Canada:"I bet if I send you in that studio there you don't know the first thing to do."So I said,"Okay, I'll go in there!"He gave me the first opportunity. I don't remember exactly which record was the first I get to actually mix, but from that time I didn't pay much attention to repairin' televisions-- I found recordin' a little less boring! [laughs]"(Barrow and Dalton 224)

Contrasting to Tubby, Scientist goes for the"dryer, punchier sound. . . and indulges in tricker patterns, too."(Ehrlich 109) One the album Big Showdown, a feud between Scientist and King Jammy at King Tubby's studio, Scientist mixes up a classic dub called"Round One."(Side A, Song #4) Here, Scientist exemplifies his speciality, a

"wicked sledgehammer emphasis on the 2 & 4 downbeat snare drum: first, he mixes t1he snare into a potty-sounding gunshot, thickly daubed with a pasty reverb. Then he send this through a flanger which turns the elongated snare slams into twanging screen-door springs!"(Ehrlich 109)

Following his time spent at Tubby's, Scientist went to work at the"Channel One studio from late 1979, where he became a resident engineer."(Barrow, April 1996) On becoming a popular"dubber"himself, Scientist in the early 1980s went on to produce a series of albums, distinguishing him from all other"masters"at the time. Scientist Meets The Space Invaders, Scientist Encounters Pac-Man, Scientist Rids The World Of The Evil Curse Of The Vampires and Scientist Heavyweight Dub Champion, just some of the series, are all distinct able albums due to the comic stripî sleeve and correlating unique theme, with the Roots Radics band backing each album. The Space Invaders album cover depicts Scientist as a super-action figure-- conquering space ships and space invaders, who have come to challenge the"S"man fighting with a laserbeam gun."Quasar,"song #5 on side A, accurately depicts the laser sounds and Scientist's speciality of wicked sounds. The Rids The World Of Vampires album cover, just as elaborate, depicts the young Scientist on a hovercraft, steering it by the sound system controls on the boat. Mummies, Vampires, Frankenstein and the Wolf man all lurk in the swamp that Scientist is gracefully speeding through; however, all the monsters are scared by Scientist's presence, and the Rastafarians he is with. One Rasta on the craft is holding a blazing torch to light his way, and the other with a shotgun protecting the dub master. In Scientist's"Blood on Hißs Lips"track, song #6 side A, a monster opens by shrieking"I want blood,"thereby integrating the name of the dub. Also, Scientist occasionally adds a haunted house organ into the background, carrying out the spooky theme. On the cover of Heavyweight Dub Champion it accordingly shows the engineer lifted in the air by his fans, while the other defeated boxers get taken away to the ambulances."Straight Left,"song #7 side A, opens with a cheering crowd, of course for Scientist, and follows with a punching and jabbing beat. I think it should be noted hear that all the lyrics to each dub on this album is about love, contrasting the expectation one-hundred and eighty percent. This album"features Jah Thomas again. . demolishing more of the same singer's tracks."(Barrow and Dalton 227) And finally, Scientist Encounters Pac-Man, a 1982 production, shows Scientist being"eaten"by the metal Pac-õMan-- defeated for the first time. The humor in this cover, however, is not that Scientist is being devoured by Pac-Man, but rather it is the monsters, space invaders and boxers from the previous albums in the background laughing at Scientist's demise. Each track is dedicated to a previous album in the series. Each dub retakes Scientist in competition; for example, there is a new space invaders dub and soccer players dub, seen previously on his World Cup album also in the series.
Having moved to in Silver Spring, Maryland by 1985, still pursuing his engineer carrier, Scientist defined dub as:

Well, dub is really what you could say a masterpiece of the engineering-- engineers using the recording equipment to bring about musical changes, a musical environment where reggae music is the music what brought forward the remix, or most of what we are hearin' in hip-hop. Actually, reggae is really the „mother of a lotta music. There is no other music in the world that has the kinda versatility that you could make dub. Hip-hop is slightly there, but not like reggae. With reggae, when you make a mistake, it finds a place and fits in. (Barrow, April 1996)

In conclusion, Dub engineers of the late 1960s were all great innovators. The"Great"King Tubby and his young protege, Scientist, in my opinion, represent two of greatest dub pioneers. Although there are many other engineers to whom respect should be paid, King Tubby and Scientist shine extrodinarily bright, clear and sharp-- catching your ear quickly just as a full spectrum catches your eye. These two top ranking musicians and dub pioneers give a special name to Jamaican reggae music. May their legacy continue.

IV. Singing Deejays and Talking Toasters

Sound systems, however, were not only a spark for the engineers, they were also culturalMly electrifying for the Jamaican deejay or toaster. In the late 1960s,

When the expectations raised by independence remained unfulfilled, Jamaicans expressed their frustrations. . lyrics revealed a new social consciousness. . .--because of a strong Rastafarian influence-- represented a return to the traditional fusion of the secular and the religious and to the symbiotic interaction of religion (including music and dance) and politics. (Alleyne 118)

Deejaying, however, is actually traceable to the sound-system dances of the late 1950s and early 1960s, when in-house disc-spinners would take over the mike and introduce the latest records with a flourish of verbal theatrics intended to whip up crowd excitement. Eventually, this developed into an art form called"toasting"- a kind of stylized rapping, rhyming, and verbal"percussing"over specially cut"dub plates"(acetate discs). Deejays soon became recording artists in their own right, releasing records and scoring hits of their own by toasting over the pre-recorded rhythm tracks of songs that had already chalked up substantial sales. (Bilby 172)

This is how deejaying provided an economic advantage for many Jamaicans. Requirements were mininimal, and many Jamaicans possessed the essential qualifications,"a quick tongue and a good time"which is why in Jamaica you often see"people deejaying in the street, working on catch-phrases."(White 34) Therefore, deejaying soon required as much energy as"dubbing"and mixing did for the selector. Often the"exact same people who attend roots dances, the deprived and ignored element of Jamaican society,"deejays became the representatives of ghetto life, talking about the"ghetto violence or the moral behavior."(White 34) People began to understand the deejay through personal experience, and listened closely to the deejay as he made is lyrics more intricate. It was the real toaster, a deejay who talks not raps over bass, who came from the"world of Sound Systems, the school for deejays."(Gayle 112)

Through the development of technology in the record industry and especially the success of reggae, the disc jockeys in Jamaica could develop a style of their own. You can see it in every slum district among the toasters or rappers who organize a weekly disco evening. They are the street poets, social commentators, they derive their lyrics from everyday life. A life without prospects perhaps, but hope, the erotic and the religion are also popular sources of inspiration: 'A thing that existed from Adam and Eve went up my sleeve and never came down till Christmas Eve'. (Bayer 62)

In fact,"deejaying is reggae's oral folk journalism, part nursery doggerel, part shrewd social analysis."(Gayle 11) Perhaps it is an accurate analysis to say that deejays are reggae's biggest fans-- interpreting and conveying both the bass of the sound-system and the realities of the ghetto, the two concepts of dub deejays. In the following paragraphs, I will talk briefly and give examples about four of the best known and most loved deejays and toasters U Roy, I Roy, Prince Jazzbo and Prince Far I.

U Roy, born Ewart Beckford from Jones Town, began deejaying around the middle of the 1960s. U Roy,"with all his will-of-the -wisp Kingston jive talkin he turn the tables on a Jamaica recording scene full of singing talent. And brought excitement, paving the way for a dance hall full of imitators,"for he was the original. (Gayle 114) U Roy-- who had received his name from his cousin-- went to work with King Tubby and the two of them together conquered the dance-hall scene."At one time in late 1970 he had three talk-over songs in the Jamaican Top Ten. . . U Roy was such a culture hero to Jamaicans and immigrant West Indians that dozens that dozens of copycats sprang up overnight despite U"Roy's piteous admonition"Do not imitate, because I originate."(Davis 103)
Perhaps the best explanation of U Roy is by Carl Gayle, when he explains,"He live in the ghetto. Earn his livin with music. . recordings, live deejayin, putting on his own dances. Used to be a timekeeper in a cement company before his sound system life started."(114) U Roy is a classic in every aspect. He scripts to the definition of what a deejay is in its purest form. The track"Hard Feeling,"song #8 side A, is a classic example of U Roy deejaying in the between 1970-1973.
I Roy and Prince Jazzbo are two interesting people to talk about due to a long standing feud. An imitator of U Roy, I Roy was more deserving to the name. Born Roy Reid, I Roy had been an accountant in Spanish Town and was one of the best deejays to imitate, being more"goofier than U Roy, spicing his cracked riffs with street games, idiotic ramblings, cheap doggerel, and nursery phrase‡s. . .his favorite, Goosey Gander."(Davis 104) Known for his ruthless humor, I Roy clearly exhibited this during a recorded series of feuds between him and another deejay at the time, Prince Jazzbo. In addition, as deejay in demand, I Roy was also particularly noted for his keen dress sense, whether he favored wearing a white three piece suit and a cane, or something more casual. He acquired the nickname"Knits"during this period, because of his wardrobe of expensive Italian knit wear. For footwear, it was strictly Russle & Bromley."(Barrow, December 1996)

Jazzbo, on-the-other-hand, who had begun his career on a"lickle three box sound,"was know for his troublemaking abilities in the music scene. (Barrow and Dalton 179) Producing his own songs, Jazzbo would stir the community with controversial chovinistic attitudes toward women. Feuds had been common with deejays ever since"Prince Buster called Derrick Morgan a 'black head chinaman.' (Barrow, January 1994) I Roy and Jazzbo feuded for quite some time, progressively so bad Jazzbo"all the time tearful and almost sobering and breaking down"in response to I Roy's attacks. . . such as telling Jazzbo to"sit down and pull himself together, throwing in a sneer of homosexual references ("Jazzbo you bound to get flop / If you go fe MoBay and sit on lap") and several more gratuitous comments as well:"Jazzbo when you sneeze/you remind me of the Japanese/You teeth full of cheese."(Davis104-5) Here"Gal Boy I Roy", song #9 side A, is a good example of Prince Jazzbo recanting I Roy's previous attack. However, I Roy and Jazzbo were actually good friends during the feud, yet it was eagerly consumed by Jamaican fans and made money for both deejays. I Roy kept sneaking insidious Jazzbo jabs into new songs until Jazzbo became a ridiculous figure and his career as a reggae madman was somewhat in eclipse. (Davis 105)

When asked to comment on the I Roy-Jazzbo imitated style and feud, U Roy replied,

Not sayin I Roy and Jazzbo don't hav still, yu know, but. . . Jazzbo hav fe com third too cos I Roy is a man who ave a style. But as soon as him personally herar me with a style him gone with it. But a deejay don't bother me much yunno. De most important thing to me right now is dat I imitate no one. (Gayle 114)

Perhaps the most powerful, meaningful, and deserving of the most high respect is the one called Prince Far I. Formerly known as Prince Cry Cry, and born Michael James Williams, the legendary Prince Far I is quoted as saying"They say Christopher Columbus discovered Jamaica, but I discovered Music."(Barker) The quotation by Gayle does perhaps the most justice for Far I because every word is true. As Gayle said,

Those elder states man of toasting, not becos of a long history but becos of the experience and wisdom evident in the sound of his voice, which belongs to the man of maturity. The Louis Armstrong of reggae, but it's not gravel in his throat, it's a throat parched by the heat of flames of smoke of herb. The sound is the heat of Kingston, dry and husky and lazy. But is not real lazy, just the right pace, cos Far I is the slowest toaster in town. The oldest lookin. Friendly lookin' when he show teeth, otherwise he frighten pirates away. Everyone love Prince Far I cos there ain't no choice cos the voice don't need music cos de voice is Cry Cry. They call him so cos das what they heard when he spoke. (118)

Far I, who toasted often about the realities of ghetto life, Psalms and strength to political leaders, however like so many of the"Greats,"was murdered a September day in 1983. Almost finishing a new album on the day of his murder, called Umkhonto We Sizewe (Spear of the Nation), Prince Far I"in the last session he did a track called 'Special Request' which felt like he was saying goodbye."(Cousins) Roy Cousins, who had been with Prince Far I that day in the studio, continues to say

The next day I went to meet Prince at the studio but Jim Brown stopped me at Randy's Record Shop and told me that Far-I had been shot last night and passed away. I was shocked and could not believe it, so I went to his home in Edgewater and found a large crowd, everyone filled with grief.
Prince Far I, although, may not be here with us now but his spirit and music continue to live. It is is here that I dedicate this entire paper to the ultimate legend, toaster, husband, Prince Far I, and return my deep love for him as he has given me so much,"cos his desire is to be loved by everyone."(Gayle 119)

In conclusion, just listen. Listen to the introduction and last song (Song #10, Side A), '83 Struggle, recorded live on December 7, 1982. Listen to the power he possesses. Close your eyes. Feel his strength. He, in my opinion, is a prophet. Nobody contains that strength. Nobody, except the most High and Holy. Prince Far I Livith.
Lastly, I found this quotation in the July 19, 1973 Rolling Stone Magazine, which I thought appropriately ties together the lives of the dubbers, deejays and toasters experiences of the late 1960s to 1980s. It reads,
But they can take a loss in Jamaica and shrug it off; they're use to it, they've been let down and shut out all their lives. Anybody on the street will tell you it's been that way for 400 years, they've been pushed and shoved and left to their own dangerous devices, and there's a lot of menacing talk going around shantytown about the pressure. (Thomas 44)

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Barker, Steve."On the wire"BBC radio"Prince Far I Musical Review Album.
Recorded December 7, 1982 (Manchester, England). Roir Records, France.
Barrow, Steve. Dub Gone Crazy: The Evolution Of Dub at King Tubby's 1975-
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---. I-Roy: Don't Check Me With No Lightweight Stuff [ 1972-75]. Blood & Fire. Manchester, England. (December 1996)
---. Dub Gon 2 Crazy: King Tubby & Prince Jammy In Fine Style [1975-1979]
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---. King Tubby & Soul Syndicate: Freedom Sounds In Dub. Blood & Fire. Manchester, England. (April 1996)
---. Scientist Dub In The Roots Tradition. Blood & Fire. Manchester, England. (April 1996)
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Bayer, Marcel. Jamaica: A Guide to the People, Politics and Culture. London: LAB, 1993.
Bilby,"Jamaica,"Caribbean Currents: Caribean music from rumba to reggae, 1995, pp. 143-182.
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Scientist."Round 1"Big Showdown. Greensleeves. 1980
---."Quasar"Scientist Meets the Space Invaders. Greensleeves. 1981.
---."Blood On My Lips"Scientist Rids The World Of The Evil Curse Of The Vampires. Greensleeves. 1981.
---."Straight Left"Scientist Heavyweight Dub Champion. Greensleelves. 1980.
Thomas, Michael."The Wild Side Of Paradise: Steaming with the Rude Boys, the Rastas and Reggae."Rolling Stone. July 19, 1973. pp. 44-52
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--- and Soul Syndicate."Great Stone"2 Heavyweight Dub. Blood & Fire. 1997.
Roy, U."Hard Feeling"With A Flick Of My Musical Wrist: Jamaican Deejay Music 1970-1973. Trojan 1994.
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