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Jason Levy


"Don’t fight ‘gainst the Rastaman with him culture music, ‘cause the Rastaman no mean no harm, what the Rastaman want to do is calm the storm"

— Albert "Apple Gabirel" Craig

Israel Vibration is one of the greatest triumphs to come out of the Jamaican reggae scene. Those familiar with the band feel the warmth of recognition and appreciation when the name comes up in a discussion of reggae music. That warmth and feeling is amplified for anyone who has heard or seen this special trio of singers perform their unique and powerful act in a live performance. For two decades the positive vibrations have been keeping us dancing and feeling the emotions of their spiritual message. Like many other reggae stars of Jamaica, Israel Vibration feel that God has given them the gift of song for the purpose of conveying the message of Rastafari to the people. These three men make musical magic that blends together traditional roots reggae with raw human emotion and a strong spiritual message. I am especially found of the music and story of Israel Vibration. I plan to discuss a biography and discography of Israel Vibes. Then I will try to describe what Israel Vibrations music means to me, both live and recorded.

The three men Albert Criag, Cecil Spence, and Lacelle Bulgin were all born in economically deprived areas of Jamaica during the late 1940’s early 1950’s. This was a terrible time in Jamaica due to the horrific Polio epidemic that swept though the cities and rural towns. Polio claimed the lives of thousands of people and crippled many others. Each of the three men fell victim to Poliomyelitis at a very young age. Most Polio infections occur from a source of contaminated drinking water. The virus enters the body through the intestine where it then multiplies. It spreads into the bloodstream where it eventually infects the nervous system and destroys motor neurons that control muscle movement. The virus only paralyzes 1% of its victims but unfortunately all three singers where in that 1 percentile.

Albert "Apple" Craig was the youngest son in a family of ten children. He was the apple of his father’s eye so they called him Apple. One of the major inspirations in Apples life was his mother. She was a spiritual healer and told him that one day he will be a great leader in the world and millions of people will follow behind him. When Albert was born he had a thin layer of tissue covering his face. When the doctor peeled off the tissue, Apple recalls, "I didn’t look like a baby, I look like an ancient man, like I was here thousands and thousands of years ago." His mother told him "all them profits, them born like that." When Apple was just three years of age he had contracted the Poliovirus. He had lost the ability to move the lower half of his body from the dreadful disease. Those who had become "contaminated" by the Poliovirus were banished from their homes and placed in centers often filled with other infected children.

The three children who later became Israel Vibration were all moved from their homes and taken to Kingston when they were young boys. Most families in Jamaica did not have the economic resources to afford sufficient medical care for their families so the three boys were sent to Mona Rehabilitation Center in Kingston. While in the center, Albert met Cecil Spence "Skelly" and Lacelle Bulgin "Wiss." The three young men where drawn to each other threw the hardships and struggles that each had lived though their young lives. While in the Rehabilitation Center, the three boys where horribly abused and mistreated, often the subjects of cruel experiments which was the conventional treatment for Polio at the time. Albert recalls having a blistering hot blanket wrapped around his legs by one of the centers nurses. While in the center, Apple, Skelly, and Wiss, found themselves with little to keep occupied so one day they started singing harmonies. As Apple recalls, we would "just sit down and sing every day because I never have anything else to do." At the age of ten Apple taught himself how to play the piano and soon after wrote his first song. Israel Vibration was almost complete; they had three lead singers and a piano back up, now all they needed was the message and leadership of Jah-Rastafari.

While in the Mona Rehabilitation center the men met a Rasta elder named Baba Douse. He taught them about Rastafari and of His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia along with Jah and the Rasta’s culture. Living life with Polio is a day-to-day challenge and I feel that Rastafari gave needed hope and praise to Apple, Skelly, and Wiss. Selassie’s teachings make the struggle that the three have lived seem overshadowed when they are focusing on spreading his message all over this world. The three men have all had their own problems and struggles to overcome them. They have all questioned God’s reasoning for giving them Polio, and why people have treated them differently their entire lives. Being cursed at and called a cripple has hurt each band member beyond the physical pain of the disease. All three men have taken this pain and transformed it into a spiritual and emotional charisma emanating from each of their souls. When seeing the three perform that vibe is passed on to an audience. "It take a lot from me outta life, but at the same time it give me much more in life" (Apple: Riverfront Times Interview 1996). One excerpt of Emperor Selassie teaching that I feel is relevant to Israel Vibration celebrating Rastafarianism is pertaining to living ones life is "Wise men have always known the deep and pervading truth that it is better to give than to receive, for even as it conflicts with selfish and ambitious desires, it moderates and controls them. Giving always demands sacrifice. To overcome the temptation to enjoy mere daily comfort, to press resolutely and patiently forward on the scheduled way, are true tests of the high degree of determination that should bind you together. Memories of past injustices should not divert us from the more pressing business at hand." (Emperor Haile Selassie I, King of Kings)

The three men began what would become a lifelong dedication to Rastafarianism. They each grew their hair into the traditional natty dread locks in accordance with their Rastafarian beliefs. The staff at the Polio rehabilitation center did not accept the dread and kicked Apple, Skelly, and Wiss out of the institution. The three were shifted around to other centers until 1969 when they were finally and permanently expelled from the institutions. The three took to life in the bush and did every thing they could to survive. They began composing and singing songs that express their spiritual beliefs in Jah-Rastafari. With nothing more to do they would hang out, smoke ganga, and develop three part harmonies that would later distinguish Israel Vibration’s unique style.

It didn’t take very long for people to recognize their singing talent. "People would pass through the bush and hear us singing and form a little audience." —Apple The local community found solace and comfort in their music and encouraged them to pursue greatness. For the next six years the trio would have another struggle, they would literally have to sing to earn their next meal and often times didn’t eat for entire days. Israel Vibes got their first unofficial gig singing at the Theological College located right next to the Mona Rehabilitation center. Skelly and Wiss shared the lead vocals with Apple as he provided the piano accompaniment. Since they’re a group made up of three lead vocalists they put the true leadership in the hands of Jah. "We three are leaders, but Jah is the highest leader." (Apple: Riverfront Times Interview, 1996) The response of their first show was a tremendous success.

In 1975, soon after word of the gig got out, the group was taken under the wing of Hugh Booth from the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Many other Rasta’s had refused to work with or support Israel Vibration because they felt that Jah had given them Polio as a form of punishment for a previous sin. The Twelve Tribes financed and produced the backing music for Israel Vibrations first single release "Why Worry" (1976) which was recorded at Treasure Isle Studio. The first single was released on a 7-inch vinyl on the Orthodox record label. The song was a success and gained much support from reggae superstars including Dennis Brown and Bob Marley among others reggae stars. Israel Vibration’s act had caught the eye of top reggae producer Tommy Cowan who decided to finance further recordings. They teamed up with The Fatman Riddim Section, otherwise known as Ian and Rodger Lewis from Inner Circle, to record their debut LP "The Same Song" on producer Tommy Cowan’s Top Ranking label. The album contained such songs as "Same Song, Weep and Mourn, Walk the Streets of Glory, Ball of Fire, I’ll Go Through, Why, Lift Up Your Conscience, Prophet Has Arise, Jah Time Has Come, Licks and Kicks, Crisis, and Crisis Dub." The Same Song was released in 1976 and was a huge success. It was hailed an instant roots classic by many Jamaican reggae producers and DJ’s. The Same Song’s success inspired Apple, Skelly, and Wiss to compose a dub companion album named Israel Tafari.

The sudden success of Israel Vibration seemed to be a happy ending to the life long struggles that these three men have gone through, but life in ‘Babylon’ was not as good as it truly seemed. Like many other reggae stars of the early 70’s, Israel Vibes was producing hit songs but was not seeing any of the money from their record sales. Unethical business practices plagued the record industry in Jamaica at the current time. Many of the top producers where controlling radio stations and records stores which made it hard for Israel Vibes to get the recognition they dissevered. A clear example of the bad business practices by record labels and producers was revisited in the movie "The Harder They Come." Questionable accounting practices, record piracy, and lack of tour promotion where all factors that stopped Israel Vibrations from becoming an international success. They knew that if they were to expand their audience they would have to leave producer Tommy Cowan behind. After the "Same Song" album was released, they put out two 45’s from the album. The two singles featured on 45’s were "Lift Up Your Conscience" and the title track "Same Song." The next release for Israel Vibes was a disco 45 named "Crisis" followed by the last 45 they ever made, "Never Gonna Hurt Me Again" in 1980. These two 45’s were the last of records that Israel Vibrations would record for Tommy Cowan and his label.

In late 1980 Apple, Skelly, and Wiss made the move over to Bob Marley’s recording studio, Tuff Gong. They were one of the first reggae artists to record at Tuff Gong studios preceding the Melody Makers and Nadine Sutherland. Backed by the Wailers band, Israel Vibes recorded the legendary album "Unconquered People." (1980) The album featured ten tracks, among them were, "Give I Grace, Friday Evening, Mr. Taxman, Survive, Top Control, We A Da Rasta, Unconquered People, Possibility, Dwellers of Darkness, and Practice What Jah Teach." During the recording at Tuff Gong, Bob Marley himself sat upstairs in the studio listening to Apple, Skelly, and Wiss record. This was an incredible experience for Israel Vibration to have Bob there listening and watching them record an album. They recall that Bob really enjoyed watching them perform. "Ya know, we were one of his favorite groups, mon." (Apple: Riverfront Times Interview, 1996)

After releasing "Unconquered People," Israel Vibration changed management once again, this time to producer Junjo Lawes. They went back into the studio to record "Why You So Craven" the third album for the trio. The album was recorded but conflicting views between the band and the producer caused a delay in its release. The three found a savior in Dynamic Sounds record company who agree to release the album under the term agreed upon by the band. The album contained the tracks, "Universal Father, Why Are You So Craven, On Jah Solid Rock, Jah Is The Way, Morning Light, Highway Robbery, Give Thanks And Praise, What’s The Use, and Smack Right Jam." After "Why You So Craven" was released the band had earned enough money to move to America in search for better medical care and hopes for solo careers.

In 1981 Israel Vibration moved from ‘the stone that the builder refused’ to the heartbeat and lifeblood of American capitalism, New York City. Apple, Skelly, and Wiss moved in together in an apartment in Manhattan. The group was suffering from under exposure which was setting them back financially, so each member branched off in their own direction to start solo projects. The solo projects were not an attempt to break up the group but an attempt to get a second source of income as a safety net. Apple recorded three 45’s as his solo project. The three releases where "Blue Jeans," "Be Mine," and "Rock On." Wiss had his own solo release, an album named "Mr. Sunshine." Skelly also forwarded his solo career with a 45 release. In the next few years of the early eighties, Reggae music found itself in a dizzying haze trying to make sense of the loss of its Rasta profit, Robert Nesta Marley.

On May 11, 1981 just before noon, the world lost one of the most prolific singer-songwriter’s of reggae music that had ever graced the green earth. Bob Marley is with out a doubt the greatest reggae star to ever come out of Jamaica. He inspired thousands of people to see through racial boundaries and fight for their freedom as human beings. His influence spans far beyond reggae music and could never be given proper justice in a paragraph of thought by a student in speech 214 class. So I will continue hoping to show that his death was a ripple felt throughout the world especially in the Rasta culture.

Since coming to the States in 1981, Israel Vibrations had yet to tour or record and album together as a complete band. It wasn’t until 1988 when Apple, Skelly, and Wiss got back together and Israel Vibration was reborn. Dr. Dread, President and founder of Ras Records was the binding factor that got them back in the studio together to record an album. In the words of the one Marcus Garvey "unity is strength," Apple, Skelly, and Wiss knew they had to unite once again to make beautiful music. The group had met Dr. Dread while recording at Tuff Gong studio in Jamaica. They had kept their relationship strong over the years having Dread give critiques of each members solo projects. Dr. Dread knew that the strength in the name "Israel Vibration" would allow the band to catch a second wind. Apple, Skelly, and Wiss all flew down to Washington D.C. from New York to start recording their first album under the Ras Records label. The album "Strength of My Life" was released in 1988 and was the spark needed to relight the fire of Israel Vibration. The songs featured on "Strength of My Life" are "Cool and Calm, Jah Love Me, Payday, Greedy Dog, Don’t Want Apartheid, Perfect Love And Understanding, Live And Give, Middle East, and Strength of My Life."

Israel Vibration continued their success in America with the help of Ras Records and friend Dr. Dread. They continued to record albums and perform live concerts enjoying their newfound success in the states. The other releases by the band are "Praises" (1990) "Dub Vibration Israel Vibration In Dub" (1991) "Israel Dub" (1991) "Vibes Alive!" (1992) "I.V." (1993) "I.V. Dub" (1994) "Dub The Rock" (1995) "Rudeboy Shufflin" (1995) "Free To Move" (1996) "Live Again!" (1997) and "Pay The Piper" (1998)

For the past few years Apple, Skelly, and Wiss have been touring with back up band, the Roots Radics. Traditional ‘Roots Reggae’ music goes much farther then its lyrics; the rhythms must have a life force behind them to deliver the true roots vibrations. The Radics are that life force; they are some of the best musicians in the reggae genre today. They are made up of "Flabba" Holt on bass guitar and Dwight Pinkney on lead guitar. Steve Golding, who used to play for Peter Tosh, on rhythm guitar. "T-Bird" Johnson is on the keyboard and Carl Ayton, who played for Bunny Wailer is the drummer. These men combined carry a plethora of musical talent and experience. They are one of the best backing bands still playing reggae music today. The Radics are featured on Israel Vibrations live album "Live Again" and they also appeared with them when the band completed their North American tour in 1999. In 1998 Apple had left Israel Vibration to further his solo career. He recorded his own album "Another Moses" and was not present during their spring tour.

On March 9, 1999, Israel Vibration played a show in Winooski, Vermont at Higher Ground. This was my first personal experience with the music of Israel Vibration. Higher Ground is a smaller venue with a club like atmosphere. I positioned myself as close to the stage as I could with ample dancing space. The show started with the Roots Radics taking the stage for a solo performance. They played some back beats while bass player Flabba Holt sang the vocals. After the Radics performance, they started playing a typical reggae introduction back beat. It was familiar to me from some of the Bob Marley bootlegs that I own. Flabba introduced Skelly and Wiss with great enthusiasm. Both men slowly made their way to the stage with crutches and all. My first impression when seeing the two men was questioning how they could put on an entire concert with arm crutches. Both men had a very impressive set of dreadlocks. Skelly had the biggest dreads that I had ever seen. One of his locks was over 3 feet long and must have weighed at least 2 pounds. They wrapped around his back and spiraled all the way to his waist. The two men on stage where surely a sight to behold. They took turns singing different songs while the Radics provided the rhythms. Both Skelly and Wiss played the part of lead singer, sharing harmonies while the other sang.

The performance was both powerful and emotional. I could feel the struggle that these two had been through from the facial movements and dances they performed. Israel Vibrations is one of the most captivating live shows that you can see today. Both Skelly and Wiss really knew how to get the crowd involved in the show. The songs truly unite people together and display the power of music to bring inner beauty out of its listeners and players alike. I Vibe’s songs have a real spiritual message coming from the soul of each performer. The message of their music is that there is but one creator who created us all, not to make us different but to make us beautiful together. Watching the band perform on crutches really touched my heart. The force inside these to men driving them to sing and dance amazed me. It was out of their pain and sorrow that they brought wonderful joy to an audience. The show had a special impact on myself; it had sparked an interest in Rastafarianism that had a great deal of influence on me taking this very class.

I have had an interest in reggae music since I heard my first Bob Marley song. I came to see that no matter who you are, where you came from, or what color you are, reggae music touches common ground with you. In a room full of college kids, each with music tastes and backgrounds as different as the colors of the rainbow, put on a Bob Marley album and everyone will be on the same plane. I could see the power of reggae music to unite people but I had no understanding of the culture behind the music. I decided to read some books on Afro-Caribbean culture to get that understanding.

One book that I found extremely helpful was Reggae Bloodlines, In search of the music and culture of Jamaica, by Stephen Davis and Peter Simon. The book explained many of the cultural aspects of reggae music and the religious brotherhood of Rastafari. Rasta culture, based on the foundations of Marcus Garvey and Haile Selassie, also allows the many poor people of Jamaica to make it through the materialistic and competitive twentieth century with dignity instead of shame and envy.

After seeing Israel Vibrations perform, I understood the true power of Rastafari. It is reggae music that gave the Rasta’s and their culture the exposure they needed to become a practiced way of life all over the world. This is where Israel Vibrations gets a huge sense of pride and accomplishment in passing the message of Rastafari on to the masses. Rasta’s had a bad name in Jamaica during their earlier days of existence. A passage by Steven Davis portrays how Rasta’s were once viewed.

"For years Jamaica feared the Rasta as a voluntary ascetic who didn’t vote and just smoke herb all day long. Then after many years, people realized that the Rastas have contributed more to Jamaican culture than any other group." (Reggae Bloodlines: pg 72) Today that view of Rastas is far from the truth. They make up some of Jamaica most prolific singers, artists, woodcarver, and musicians. They are very political and active in community development. Many still continue Marcus Garvey’s fight for black empowerment in today’s white driven societies. Today, prejudice and racism still exist while equal rights do not. We are far from having a black male in the world be treated equal to a white male. Many of Israel Vibrations songs portray images of the Rasta culture and how blacks are foreseen in the world.

One album that I would like to give my thoughts on is "Live Again." (1997) I recently purchased this album and it has quickly made a place for itself in my weekly rotation. The album is a compellation of live recordings from their 1997 North American tour. The song "Rockford Rock" starts off the album. This song is an instrumental number performed by the Roots Radics. It contains a heavy bass line with echoed piano rhythms. The drumbeat is a typical reggae drum beat with the snare drum rim hit on the third count. In the beginning of the song the keyboard mimics the sounds of a horn instrument. The keyboard then changes to sound like a piano with reverb or echo. The guitar rift is a typical "Ska" hit coming in between drum hits.(Not Ska music but as the sound that the guitar makes) The song leads into Isreal Vibrations everpoulare "Same Song."

The "Same Song" starts with Carl Ayton’s durmbeat. He hits the high-hat symbol on the 1 and the 2 count. He hits the rim of the snare and the bass drum on the 3 count. Then one of the members of the Radics calls out "Israel Vibrations, are you feeling irie?" This is when the three men make their way on the stage. The next instrument to come in is the guitar playing a 3-note riff. The bass guitar is quick to follow in with a really cool bass line that seems to talk to the audience. Next the keyboards come in playing a complementing line to the bass guitar. When the keys come in the guitar switches parts to the usual "Ska, Ska Ska" sound. Then Skelly takes the microphone and screams out a traditional Rasta "Whayooe!" He then gives his praises to the Bobo, a tribe of Rastas who bid their lives for doing kind acts for their brothers and waiting for God to take them back to Africa. Skelly also gives out praise to the Orthodox and the Twelve Tribes of Israel. After his respect is given the vocals start with Skelly singing "We’re all gonna sing the same song." Soon after, the music takes a chaotic turn and abruptly stops. Skelly continues " I said, I said, I said, Respect to the big natty dread, respect to the Bobo shandy dread, respect to the orthodox and respect to the children of Israel. Goinda Radics!" The Radics continue the beat and Israel Vibration continue "We all gonna sing da same song."

The chorus is repeated three times and Skelly goes into the verse "O’ whether you’re a Bobo or whether you’re an orthodox, if you want to be a big natty dread, whether the twelve tribes of Israel. We all gonna sing da same song. We all gonna jam da same jam. … We can unite, We need not fight." Here an important message of unity is prevailed to the Rastas in Jamaica. No matter what you are, we all must join together to fight for the common good of the group. The chorus is then repeated again "We all gonna sing da same song."

In the next verse Skelly seems to be talking to the world from the standpoint of the original black African man "You take us out our homeland. You take us down here to Babylon. Wanting us to sing us to singa da sing da same song." He is portraying how the white slave traders took blacks from Africa and brought them to Jamaica forcing them to be their slaves. The slave owners often force the slaves to perform songs and dances for their own amusement. Some feel that reggae music evolved from the performances of the slaves that most often made fun of the whites culture. The chorus is repeated one more time and then Radics transform the song into track two, "Jailhouse Rock"

Jailhouse rock is a song that paints a picture of the Jamaican prison system to the audience. References are made to jail cells in Spanish Town and Fort Augusts. Jamaica has had its share of political unrest and many jail sentences are an effect of political disputes. The two-part system is made up of the People’s National Party and the opposition Jamaica Labor Party. Most political disputes are resolved violently in the back alleys of Kingston. The streets of Jamaica are filled with guns thought to have come to the island by the ganja traders in the U.S. Jamaica has strict laws pertaining to gun ownership and the usage of ganja. Many reggae stars have served time in jail because of their liberal use of marijuana.

The verse of "Jailhouse Rock" goes "It has been a long time. My brothers and my sisters have been taken away for such a long time. Locked behind da bar in Spanish town, locked behind da bar in Fort Augusts. Say I know what you’re going through, say I so what you feeling too. So I know a lot of you are innocent, Serving the time of a convicted prisoner. Jailhouse Rocken!" Here Israel Vibrations expresses their sorrow and understanding for those who have been unfairly imprisoned for partaking in Rastafarian culture.

The next track on Live Again is "Rudeboy Shufflin." The song follows in the structure of a typical reggae song with the hard beat on the three count. The song starts out with a quote "Got to survive, Got to stay alive in the Babylon." The meaning of this pertains to the songs name. Sometimes you got to do what you got to do to survive in this world. The rude boy phenomenon started in when Pinnacle, a Rastafarian camp, was closed down and many locksmen moved from the countryside into Trench Town. A crime wave began and violent acts became an everyday occurrence in the slums. Rasta called these contrymen rude boys. In the song "Rudeboy Shufflin," Israel Vibration describes what rude boy’s are like and explains the daily life in Babylon being a rude boy skankin.

The next song that I chose to depict the meaning is "There Is No End," track number seven. The song is about the wonderful presence of Jah. The verse of the song "There is no end, to a good thing. Cause everyday there is Jah loving" "I saw the children cry, I saw the children die. So much fussin and fightin. A things that you don’t right, but Jah love is stronger than their sins. You just can’t conquer Jah’s love with things." The song is a tribute to Jah to make everything right. Jah is the ultimate judgment in Rastafarianism. He is the only decider of what is good and bad. In this song, Israel Vibration shows their love and dedication to Jah and Rastafarianism. With all of the horrible things going on in the world, Jah’s love is stronger then all of them. Jah will show the way to the dread to salvation, to Zion.

The final song that I would like to analyze is "Racial Injustice." The song has an extraordinarily happy beat considering the title "Racial Injustice." The verse picks up "Oh when I wake up in the morning there is no breakfast on my table. Oh when I’ve reached home in the evening, there is no dinner on my table." "How many rivers do we have to cross before we can talk to the boss?" "Racial War in the city now it’s burning down." "So long for people crying out to you, you never keep a listening ear. So long for people reaching out to you, you never seem to really care." "So many poor homeless and hungry. How can you sit there and say you care, when so much pain and sorrow is everywhere." "Champaign and caviar time, you don’t care if Jah come in the morning. So you treat the children like swine and don’t take him to Jah warning."

This song portrays the life of a black man as an oppressed minority in the world. He lives the same life as a white man but he is not treated the same. When he wakes up, he has no breakfast on his table. When he comes home he has no supper on his table. The white man has these things in our society. He is given many benefits that the black man is not. When a white goes to a job interview he is seen as a trustworthy hard worker until he proves himself otherwise. When a black man goes to a job interview he is seen as a criminal, a cheat, a man who plans not to work but to rob your business of your money. This is the typical view of a black in society and the view continues until we (the white community) can put aside our prejudice, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism.

Today we have made progress towards equal rights but we are far short of true equality. Great leaders among men such as Dr. Martin Luther King and Marcus Garvey have fought for the equal rights for the black race. Israel Vibration supports these men in everyway. They show their support in their practice of Rastafarianism and the songwriting.

Israel Vibration takes great pride in being performers. They feel their purpose as singers of reggae music is to spread the message of Rastafari to everyone who is willing to listen. Their music blends together traditional roots reggae and a strong spiritual message. The raw human emotion that lies inside of these three men is a spiritually moving sight. Apple, Skelly, and Wiss are examples of how the power of Rastafari can make one look past the bad and see beauty in the details of life. They bring beautiful music to this world from the pain that the world has given them. Rastafarianism has given them along with thousands of other Jamaicans ever gleaming hope and pride in a self-perpetuating cycle of poverty and despair.



WEB References:

Text References:

Davis, Stephen. Simon, Peter. Reggae Bloodline: In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica. Da Capo Press, New York. 1992

Israel Vibration: Modern Roots With A Message. Originally printed for "The Riverfront Times" Chicago. 1996. Author unknown

Audio References:

Israel Vibration "Live Again" Ras Records CD3247 1997