NEGATIVE - CRITIQUE - FEMINIST CRITIQUE OF PRIVACY 150
ANSWER TO PERMUTATIONSBROAD POLICY CHANGE IS KEY
*ALSO USE THE STATE ACTION LINKS
WE MUST HAVE BROAD SOCIAL CHANGE, LEGAL CHANGES ARE ONLY BANDAID SOLUTIONS
Sherry B. Ortner, Prof. of Anthropology at Columbia University, 1998; FEMINISM, THE PUBLIC AND THE PRIVATE, "is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?." EE2001-hxm p. 42-43
It is clear, then, that the situation must be attacked from both sides. Efforts directed solely at changing the social institutionsthrough setting quotas on hiring, for example, or through passing equal-pay-for- equal -work laws-cannot have far-reaching effects if cultural language and imagery continue to purvey a relatively devalued view of women. But at the same time efforts directed solely at changing cultural assumptions-through male and female consciousness- raising groups, for example, or through revision of educational materials and mass-media imagery-cannot be successful unless the institutional base of the society is changed to support and reinforce the changed cultural view. Ultimately, both men and women can and must be equally involved in projects of creativity and transcendence. Only then will women be seen as aligned with culture, in culture's ongoing dialectic with nature.
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS ARE THE BEST HOPE FOR CHANGE, NOT POLICY SOLUTIONS
Susan B. Boyd, Chair in Feminist Legal Studies and Prof. of Law at University of British Columbia, 1997; CHALLENGING THE PUBLIC/PRIVATE DIVIDE, "Challenging the Public/Private Divide: An Overview," EE2001hxm p. 21
Despite the pessimistic situation just outlined, restructuring that relies on an enlargement of the private sphere does contain spaces for resistance by social movements. For example, official reliance on progressive discourses (e.g., on 'community') has created some space for resistance to regressive restructuring of the child welfare system in Alberta (Kline this volume). To think about how to organize such resistance, insights gained from poststructuralism about the need for attention to local sites of struggle and resistance must be combined with structuralist/political economy approaches (Best and Kellner 199 1; see also Ocran this volume).
MOVEMENTS SOLVE BETTER THAN LEGAL SOLUTIONS
Iris Marion Young, Prof. of Ethics and Political Theory at the University of Pittsburgh, 1998; FEMINISM, THE PUBLIC AND THE PRIVATE, "Impartiality and the Civic Public: Some Implications of Feminist Critiques of Moral and Political Theory," EE2001hxm p. 442
The new social movements of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s in the US have begun to create an image of a more differentiated public that directly confronts the allegedly impartial and universalist state. Movements of racially oppressed groups, including black, chicano, and American-Indian liberation, tend to reject the assimilationist ideal and assert the right to nurture and celebrate in public their distinctive cultures and forms of life, as well as asserting special claims of justice deriving from suppression or devaluation of their cultures, or compensating for the disadvantage in which the dominant society puts them. The women's movement too has claimed to develop and foster a distinctively women's culture, and has asserted that both women's specific bodily needs and women's situation in male-dominated society require attending in public to special needs and unique contributions of women. Movements of the disabled, the aged, and gay and lesbian liberation have all produced an image of public life in which persons stand forth in their difference, and make public claims to have specific needs met.