If the affirmative is committed to defending and preserving the national boundaries between nation states, an alternative might be to dissolve national borders and create a world government. Whatever immigration regulations the affirmative is proposing would be useless and counter-productive in a world without borders.
I. Time is right for world government
A. We are on the brink of a global world government C1-3
B. A global society is rising C4-7
C. Global government is feasible
1. Realistic C8
2. Precedent exists C9
3. No political barriers C10
II. Competition: restricting immigration competes with world government
A. Maintenance of borders tops globalism C11-13
B. Maintaining borders stops transition to world government C14-15
C. America should accept all immigrants C16-18
III. Advantages of a world government
A. Cultural diversity C19-20
B. Solve all immigration problems C21
C. Solve environmental problems C22-24
D. Solve conflict and war C25-31
E. Solve human rights problem C32
F. Will be democratic C33
G. Solve terrorism C34
H. Solve all problems C35-42
I. No disadvantages C43
A. What world government is C44-45
B. Statism will not solve C46-49
C. Other world organizations will not replace world government C50-52
D. No national identity problem C53-56
A. World government bad C57-58
B. No competition between world government and statism C59
C. World government is not feasible C60-63
D. Open borders is a bad idea C64-68
Data and information about immigration is so bad that we should undertake a comprehensive study of immigration policies before we attempt the sorts of reforms the affirmative advocates.
I. Competition: we should study, not act
A. Must study immigration issues first or new plans will fail C69-72
B. Must study because of cost C73
C. Must study because previous data is faulty C74
D. Without new studies, policies will fail C75-76
II. Advantages of immigration study
A. Will prevent war and conflict C77-78
B. Study can solve all problems C79-81
III. More study of immigration is not needed C82
STUDY FEMALE ISSUES FIRST COUNTERPLAN
Immigration has systematically ignored women's issues and roles. These issues must be studied before we adopt reforms based on current models, which are sexist and anti-women.
I. Competition: we should study women in immigration first, not act
A. All immigration studies have excluded women's roles C83
B. We must study women in immigration before we act C84
A. Devaluing of women can lead to genocide C85-86
B. Any perpetuation of distinction can justify genocide C87-88
C. Even if not physically killed the oppressed are psychologically killed -- which is worse C89
C1 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 76 / / MDS VT95
The existence of a world community has now become unquestionable. It is what the jurists we have cited recognize and what Falk calls the global civil society. It makes itself apparent in the activity of numerous non government organizations (NGOs), in the response of world public opinion to violations of human rights or unjustifiable conduct on the part of ethnic groups (as, for instance, the recent behavior of the Serbs in Yugoslavia). Once this world community with the global common interests that unite it is given institutional representation in a democratic federal structure of world government, the political crises that are so frequent and so ubiquitous will either disappear or be totally transformed.
C2 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 83 / / VT95
The necessary and sufficient conditions for world federation are therefore at hand, and the pressing need for an authority that can legislate measures to combat the desperate global problems facing humanity is unquestionable. All that remains to be done is to persuade the peoples of the world of the "2 danger they seem so reluctant to acknowledge, and of the one course of action prerequisite to dealing with it, so that they will take the necessary steps to establish appropriate legislative institutions. It is not that a federal structure of international government will automatically solve all difficult ties. It is only the precondition, the administrative structure, that will :, permit the necessary expedients to be put into practice. That it is the necessary precondition is made plain by the failure of all the other options available.
C3 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 '"The Making of Global Citizenship'" in ""Global Visions"" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill Cutler) p. 40 / / VT95
The reality of global citizenship is unavoidable, but its form remains contested. It is not yet dear whether it is largely a globalized identity of elites arising from the integration of capital, or whether it represents a growth of human solidarity arising from an extension of democratic principles as a result of the exertions of peoples and their voluntary associations. Both forms of globalization are unfolding before our eyes, but what sorts of balances emerge will reveal the extent to which the so-called New World Order is our destiny for the foreseeable future, or only a disappointing stage that obstructs a move toward fulfilling our normative potential as a species, expressed by the idea of a one-world community
C4 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 65 / / VT95
The existence of a global civil society is essential to the establishment of a new world order, and it is not without import that already talk of "the international community" has become common. International public opinion, engendered by the media throughout the world, is also proving increasingly influential on the conduct of national governments. This development is the result of a growing awareness (still rather unorganized and undirected) that people all over the world and of whatever nationality have common interests that are ultimately so vital that they should override national concerns.
C5 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 50 / / VT95
The second great change would be that world society would be transformed from a collection of relatively separate national societies concerned primarily about national interests into a single community of individual world citizens focused on what is beneficial for the world community as a whole. In a world federation the nation-states would continue to exist as political units to deal with their own internal or domestic problems, but the people of those states would also become individual citizens, of a global government with which they would be able to interact personally.
C6 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 "The Making of Global Citizenship" in "Global Visions" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill Cutler) p. 41 / / VT95
Secondly, there is a reinforcing set of trends of much more recent origin that comprise the phenomenon of globalization: the tendency toward global integration, especially economic integration. Financial markets are becoming linked, even consolidated, at a rapid rate; capital formation has become more concentrated in response to global forces; and the annual economic summit of the heads of state in the seven leading industrial countries (G-7) is rapidly becoming an expression of the originality of the world system during its present stage of evolution. In other words, events are rapidly globalizing our outlook.
C7 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 "The Making of Global Citizenship" in "Global Visions" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill CutIer) p. 7 / / VT95
This deterritoralized and homogenized elite global culture is becoming extremely influential as a social force driving the political / / / / and economic systems of the world. It is, in my view, the technocratic context being set for European integration as a foundation for more effective forms of European participation in the world economy.
C8 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 80 / / VT95
To castigate the proposition of world federation as merely academic and utopian should thus be seen as ludicrous. What is utopian is visionary and impracticable, but that federalism as such is neither is made blatantly apparent by the existence and successful working of numerous actual federal states in the world today, notably the Swiss, the Australian, the Canadian, and the Indian, and most prominently of all the. United States of America, .
C9 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 82 / / VT95
Another precondition favorable to federation is that the nations uniting should previously have belonged to some other form of union, either a colonial empire or a confederation of some sort. The states that federated to form the United States of America had been in both these situations. Many, if not all, of the states of the Earth today have similarly experienced some form of looser association, first in the League of Nations and then in the United Nations- Further, in recent decades, various regional alliances and economic groupings have come into being, which might well prepare the ground for closer association.
C10 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 78 / / VT95
Once the political battles and entanglements are eliminated, which are generated by the relations between sovereign independent states, or communities seeking sovereign independence, the real and most pressing menaces to human survival could then be addressed without constant distraction of attention by local disputes and belligerence, and plans could be made to meet them without the need to conclude treaties between states whose good faith is never wholly reliable. The plans once made, and endorsed by the federal legislature, could be enshrined in statutes; their implementation could be backed by legal enforcement as required, and progress could be made where today valuable time is lost in wrangling and vacillation without any reliable outcome.
C11 / ANTHONY RICHMOND, Prof. Sociology, York Univ. [Canada], I 988; IMMIGRATION AND ETHNIC CONFLICT p. 9 \\ VT95
There is an inherent contradiction between the maintenance of sovereignty by separate states and their integration into a global society, in which such migratory pressures exist. The contradiction is epitomized in the U. N. Charter of Human Rights, Article 13 of which recognizes a universal right to emigrate, but no corresponding right to be admitted elsewhere.
C11a / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for SurvivaI" p. 42 / / VT95
It should be clearly apparent that the chief problems of maintaining world peace and of conserving the environment cannot be met except by global action and international cooperation, which is so difficult to come by that efforts to secure it seem almost always to end in frustration. this be so? Why should The answer lies in one word: Sovereignty. Because nations are sovereign, they view their national interests as paramount, and for each these take precedence over. global requirements that are seldom fully appreciated, are often controversial, and are only vaguely, if at all, recognized. Consequently, agreements are reached, when they are, only with difficulty, and they are always precarious, for reasons some of which have already been indicated.
C12 / Myron Weiner, (Ford International Professor of Political Science at MIT) 1993 International Migration and Security (edited by Myron Weiner) p. 26 / / VT95
But no policy, short of the obliteration of international boundaries and sovereign states, can deal with the vast numbers of people who want to leave their country for another where opportunities are greater and life is safer.
C14 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 45 / / VT95
It is obvious that the government of every state with sovereign independence will give precedence, in fact, will devote itself exclusively to the furtherance of its national interests, and, as it can do so only as long as the state remains independent, its first and overriding concern must be its means of defense against attack and aggression from foreign sources. Security, therefore, is always the paramount consideration of independent sovereign nations, and each attempts to acquire and to maintain as strong a military capability as it can. Other states are, for reasons which will presently become progressively more apparent, potential opponents, especially those closest to the home state's borders.
C15 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p66 / / VT95
On the other hand, statism, if that means state sovereignty, is a constant impediment to the regulation of international affairs in any orderly and pacific manner, and the lack of a genuinely effective legal structure in this sphere is, in the circumstances mankind now finds itself, little short of calamitous. We have seen that, without war, or the threat of war, legal enforcement is not possible against sovereign states, but. a legal system enshrined within a political constitution which itself exercised sovereign authority could be made effective. It must, however, exercise its jurisdiction over persons, for it cannot do so over states that are sovereign.
C16 / JULIAN L. SIMON [Fellow--Cato Institute] THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF IMMIGRATION 1989 p. 363 \\ SW- VT95
Permit me to repeat that there is no ethical dilemma. The US does not need to balance the gains to others against the sacrifice to itself. Because the US does good for itself at the same time that it does good for immigrants, on balance, we do not need to consider the ethical basis of simply drawing a boundary line around the nation and saying that only those who are lucky enough to be born within the line are entitled to chances that are denied to others for selfish reasons.
C17 / CHRISTOPHER MITCHELL, PROF. POLITICS, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, 1992; WESTERN HEMISPHERE IMMIGRATION AND UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY, "Introduction, " p. 29 / / MS-VT95
Those who ascribe special moral status to the claims of some refugees and other migrants naturally call upon governments (that may bear partial responsibility for those migrants' plights) to recognize and meet their claims.
C18 / Julian Simon Professor of Business, University of Maryland 1990 '"The Case for Immigration" Inquiry, May 1983 Population Matters: People Resources Environment and Immigration, p. 282 / / PKK- VT95
Immigration at first seems to be an issue with two ideological faces. One face: The freedom to move across national boundaries is a human right that ought to be recognized. As F. A. Hayek reminds us, "A person's legal duties are to be the same toward all, including the stranger and even the foreigner. " Hayek damns those groups such as unions that call for "social justice" yet "reject such claims raised on behalf of foreigners. "
C19 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 "The Making of Global Citizenship" in "Global Visions'" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill CutIer) p. 40 / / VT95
The multicultural foundations of the embracing idea of global citizenship provide some safeguard against any reliance on one more totalizing concept deriving from the West, but perhaps this is not enough protection. The very essence of global civil society is the actuality and affirmation of such diversity, which itself then provides the ethos of the forms of global citizenship that are being most fully endorsed.
C20 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 "The Making of Global Citizenship" in "Global Visions" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill CutIer) p. 40 / / VT95
Globalization-from-below is, in its essence, an expression of the spirit of "democracy without frontiers, " mounting a challenge to the homogenizing tendencies of globalization-from-above. At the very least, the construction of global civil society is seeking to extend ideas of moral, legal, and environmental accountability to those now acting on behalf of state, market, and media. . .
C21 / RONALD d. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 23 / / VT95
Furthermore, it does not make sense for the rich countries to adopt policies under which poor people who manage to make it into the richer countries are provided education, food, and health care while those who remain outside their borders are deprived of these services. Such policies can only result in mass (possibly illegal) immigration into the rich countries. A better sense of justice needs to be developed based on the very self-evident principle that no one chooses when or where to be born. People informed by such a sense of justice would see that the world community has the obligation to counter the haphazard workings of nature so that all humans, no matter where they happen to be born, have at least a certain minimal standard of living. This principle is accepted within the borders of most developed countries; there is no reason that the world government should not apply the same principle within the world community which it would be governing. "?
C22 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 72 / / VT95
Conservation of the environment demands urgent measures on a global scale which transcend the limits of national sovereign jurisdiction. Diplomacy and international agreement cannot be relied on to ensure the action necessary. So the national sovereign state is clearly no longer competent to secure the welfare even of the community over which it rules, for that is obviously dependent on the conservation of the planetary ecology and the maintenance of world peace, both of which are also interests common to the whole of humanity. It follows that the national state is no longer rightfully entitled to wield sovereign power. By its inability to serve the common interest it forfeits its authority and thereby its legitimacy. With this legitimacy forfeited, there is clearly no call upon anybody to pay it deference in opposition to the idea of world federalism, as Falk claims to be inevitable.
C23 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 80 / / VT95
In the absence of a federal world government or some other international restraints, most national governments will be reluctant to adopt or enforce strict laws protecting the environment.
C24 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (PROF. SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY), 1993, "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government, " p. 22 / / MDS-VT95
An obvious issue for the world government to address in this connection is the depletion of the ozone layer and other pollution issues. National governments are already aware of these problems and are trying to take action to deal with them by means of treaties. With such treaties, however, questions of short-term apparent national interest rather than long-term human welfare become central issues in the negotiations, and any nation which does not want to join in the cooperative international effort cannot be forced to do so. With a world government the laws protecting the environment would apply to individuals as individuals all over the world. No nation would be able to gain an economic advantage over others by allowing pollution to continue in its territory.
C25 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 21 / / VT95
As noted, the main job of the world government will be to maintain law and order. If successful in its task, the world government would end all war. It would do even more than that. It would change the whole nature of interna tional relations. The present international system in which conflicts are ultimately resolved by force or threats of force (a war system) would be re placed by a political and judicial system (a peace system) where votes are taken and judges decide whether particular individuals have violated interna- tional law. It would no longer be necessary for nations to maintain armies to protect themselves against possible attack from other nations. National govern ments would no longer build up their military forces in order to try to in timidate their enemies. Military spending could be reduced to zero. Instead of counting tanks and nuclear weapons to determine how a conflict might be resolved we would count votes in the world parliament.
C26 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 50 / / VT95
Changing the international system in this manner would result in two extremely important changes in the way international affairs are conducted. First, there would be an end to the struggle among nation-states for military dominance. National military forces would become as unimportant and even irrelevant in world affairs as the military forces of the various states are in the affairs of the United States. Just as no one now cares about the military power of California, Texas, New York, or Illinois, in that transformed world no one would care about the military power of the United States, Japan, Germany, or Russia. What would matter would be how many votes a given viewpoint or group could get to support it in the world parliament. Struggles for power would become political and judicial rather than military.
C27 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" pp. 49-50 / / VT95
The main argument for world federation is the need to replace the existing international system of totally sovereign nation-states which resolve their differences by diplomacy, coercive threats, and war with a new kind of international system where competition between national societies is restrained by law for the good of the larger community just as is done within democratic countries. The "law" being advocated by world federalists is neither the natural law theoretically known through the use of reason by all humans nor the existing kind of international law based on treaties between totally sovereign nation states. It is rather world law enacted and enforced in accord with the provisions of a world constitution. As within democratic countries, conflicts among groups in the larger community would be worked out in the political processes of electing representatives for limited terms of office and then adopting legislation through compromise and voting within the legislature. A constitution would set down the procedures to be followed, procedures which could not be easily changed but which could, when necessary, be modified in accord with provisions for making amendments written into the constitution.
C28 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 77 / / VT95
If civil strife were to break out, the control of the arms trade and of the' supply of armaments in general by the federal government would effectively prevent the violence from spreading or escalating, and the world authority would be empowered legitimately to send in not only peacekeeping, but peacemaking forces. In short, the carnage and misery we have witnessed in Yugoslavia could hardly have arisen in the first place, and whatever ethnic disputes and conflicts might have taken place could easily and expeditiously have been ended and equitably settled.
C29 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 65 / / VT95
It is in the area of law enforcement that the changes would be most significant. With the present international system efforts to enforce international law are directed wholly toward national governments. If aggression occurs, if poisonous gas is used, if terrorism takes place, the UN (always acting as agent for the national governments) takes action against the national governments of the people involved rather than against the individuals responsible for the crime. Only national governments can be parties before the International Court of Justice, popularly known as the World Court. With a world federation, however, enforcement would be against those particular individuals who violated the law. That is why law enforcement by a federal world government would not require a large army equipped with nuclear weapons to do battle against the armies of recalcitrant national governments. The world federation would require only lightly armed police arresting individuals who were the law violators.
C30 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" pp. 76-7 / / VT95
In a federation the member states will require no military forces, but only local police; military coups, like those in Burma, Thailand, and elsewhere, could not then occur. As disputes unresolved and grievances unaddressed federal by state governments could be submitted for settlement to the courts, there would be an ever ready hedge against internal unrest. Those resorting to violence of any kind could be arrested and prosecuted under federal criminal law as they are under municipal law, without the need to resort to excessive force These conditions would eliminate the causes and provide solutions for ethnic conflicts like what we have seen m Yugoslavia. .
C31 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 77 / / VT95
Where relief from famine and other distress is needed, it could be organized and provided without fear of obstruction by civil wars. Ethnic groups (Kurds, Armenians, or whoever) could appeal to the federal courts for the protection of their rights and could be given autonomy, within the federation, without any need or pretext to fight for sovereign independence. Disputes such as those between the republics of the former Soviet Union would either never arise, as they have done over the possession of the Black Sea Fleet (which would have been abolished and replaced by a coast guard, or else internationalized under the world federal government), over the responsibility for nuclear weapons, which would have been transferred to the World Executive, or over the command of the Army of the Common wealth, for which there would be no further use. Or they could be pacifically settled by resort to legal means.
C32 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 86 / / VT95
The fourth auxiliary argument for federal world government is based on the need for a better way to deal. with . gross violations of. human rights. .
C33 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 65 / / VT95
The general point is that under a world federation all citizens of the world community would have a direct relationship with the world governance system instead of always having the national governments act as their spokespersons. The world situation would be like the situation in the United States where citizens do not need to have their state governments speak and act for them on national issues. They can interact directly with their congressional representatives, the president, and other national officials. With a world federation all citizens of the world would be able to interact directly with leaders and officials of the world government concerning global issues.
C34 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 77 / / VT95
The frustration hitherto experienced in dealing. with international terrorism could no longer hamper those who wish to see the culprits brought to justice. There would be no sovereign regimes to shield the terrorists or to prevent their apprehension. If Libya were a member of a world federation, no Colonel Qaddafi could stand in the way of the arrest, on the warrant of a federal attorney general, of suspected criminals. Economic sanctions harmful to the welfare of an entire people would not be called for, nor any military threat Nothing more would be needed than firm action by the federal police.
C35 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 72 / / VT95
Although the need to change the international arena from a war system to a peace system is the main argument for world federation, it is by no means the only argument. In this section six auxiliary arguments for federal world government will be presented. (1) A world federation is needed in order to manage the globally interdependent world economy. (2) A world federation is needed to avoid ecological disaster. (3) A world federation is needed to manage those regions of the world not presently under the control of national governments. (4) A world federation is needed to deal with gross violations of human rights. (5) A world federation is needed to control international crime such as drug trafficking. (6) A world federation is needed to support and promote a sense of world community.
C36 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. x / / VT95
The argument is simple, obvious, and straightforward: (a) the Earth's environment is rapidly being disrupted with potentially disastrous effects on human and all other life; (b) prompt remedial action is imperative, but is not being taken; (c) no expedients can be satisfactorily effective unless they are global in scope, therefore none taken simply by national governments can be sufficient; (d) international agreements to act in concert are of little use unless their observance can be guaranteed, which, among national sovereign states, is impossible, because there are no means of enforcement (short of military action which defeats the object of the agreement); (e) consequently, it is essential to establish immediately a form of world authority that can legislate globally and enforce world law on individuals without resort to warfare. The purpose of the following chapters is to develop this argument in more detail.
C37 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 78 / VT95
In a federated world the entire international prospect would be trans formed. There would indeed be a new world order, one in which the political troubles and civil strife that are now plaguing the nations would have disappeared, and the most crucial and urgent problems facing the human race as a whole could be addressed with some hope of solution.
C38 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 "The Making of Global Citizenship" in "Global Visions" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill Cutler) p. 40 / / VT95
The citizenship associated with the New World Order is very much a stratified conception based on beneficiaries and victims, inclusion and exclusion. It presupposes the sustainability of high-growth capitalism. The one-world community is a far more egalitarian conception that be makes environmental and cultural sustainability contingent on drastic lifestyle adjustments and the attainment of ecological / equity balances. In this second orientation toward citizenship, the distinction between expediency and utopianism becomes blurred.
C39 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1993 "The Making of Global Citizenship" in "Global Visions" (Ed. Jeremy Brecher, John Brown Childs, and Jill CutIer) p. 50 / / VT95
In contrast, the groupings of global civil society encourage a human rights and democracy orientation toward global citizenship-the world as delightfully heterogeneous, yet inclusive of all creation in an overarching frame of community sentiment, premised on the biological and normative capacity of the human species to organize its collective life on foundations of nonviolence, equity, and sustainability. This reality imaginatively already exists--and hence, politically, a One-World Community is an emergent possibility.
C40 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 70 / / VT95
The only practicable alternative to anarchy, on the one hand, and to one nation hegemony, on the other, is for the nations of the world freely to unite in a federation presided over by an authority legally empowered to legislate and administer genuine world law that could be enforced on individual persons without resort to military might, as no law (be it called international or what you will) can be enforced upon sovereign states. We must first consider the principles, philosophical and legal, on which any such regime could be based; then we must assess the prospect of its work ability, and finally the means and conditions of its being established.
C41 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 71 / / VT95
As essential to the existence of social order, sovereignty is legitimate and indispensable. Without such supreme authority, empowered to enforce law, anarchy would prevail and people would be in the condition described q4 by Hobbes as the State of Nature. But in the international sphere, because states are sovereign and independent, that condition is precisely what does prevail, and that is how national sovereignty becomes an evil genius. The only way to avoid this hindrance to any really salutary international order is to internationalize sovereignty, which cannot be done except by uniting the nations in a federation
C42 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government," p. 22 / / VT95
Despite the heroic efforts of many international organizations, both governmental and non governmental, there are cer- tainly many people still in dire need. The world government would have the obligation to try to bring that situation to an end.
C43 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 76 / / VT95
The main misgivings about the unification of all peoples in a world federation have now been revealed as largely groundless; and even if some risks would have to be taken by embarking upon so far-reaching a change, the disadvantages anticipated are only speculative, whereas the real and acknowledged dangers already threatening humanity are immensely greater and arc vastly more formidable. It is now apparent that these dire prospects cannot be removed by any of the other expedients hitherto proposed, nor can any of the remedies presently contemplated for the deterioration of the environment succeed without universal compliance with rules legally en forced; and because only globally applied remedies can be sufficient, no such enforcement is possible under the system (or lack of it) now prevailing.
C44 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 20 / / VT95
But the world government would not be unique in lacking this security function. As we have already noted, in the United States the state governments do not need to concern themselves with this problem. Neither do city, county, nor any other kind of government except national governments.
C45 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" pp. 73-4 / / VT95
The only feasible form of world government and the only one that could be made acceptable to the world community, is federalism. Unitary government, concentrating all power and administrative control in the hands of a central administration would not only be too cumbersome, and, in all probability, too bureaucratic, but would also too grossly override the separate interests of the associating nationalities. Historically diverse national regions would, therefore, have to be left autonomous, so far as was permissible by the demands of their own common welfare and that of the global community; and only those issues which cannot effectively be controlled by regional authorities would have to be invested in the central authority.
C46 / RICHARD FALK, (Prof. International Law at Princeton) 1992 "Explorations at the Edge of Time" p. 67 / / VT95
It seems likely that direct efforts to achieve global reform will not soon be forthcoming from state leaders and, to the extent attempted, will yield only trivial results that are not responsive to the real challenges of international life. Further, states as now constituted are very unlikely to achieve great normative gains internally for very many of the peoples of the world, although there will be a diversity of balance sheets by which gains and losses are computed.
C47 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 43 / / VT95
It is clear that the measures to be , adopted must be global in scope, and that nothing less will avail. It is equally clear that nothing national sovereign states can do will be sufficient and that the least that has any promise of success can be achieved only through comprehensive international action. So our central question is how this can be brought about, not just eventually in the distant future, but immediately. For deterioration of the environment has already advanced so far, and its reversal is already so precarious, that the time at our disposal is extremely limited and the urgency of the problems is acute.
C48 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 24 / / VT95
What should be recognized, but is not widely admitted, is that no remedies are likely to be effective if they are not universally applied. The problems are global and local expedients will not remove them. The use of wind power in California and solar power in Arizona may mitigate the accumulation of greenhouse gases, but it cannot altogether prevent global warming. Emission of C02 from fossil fuel burning, wherever it occurs, affects the Earth's atmosphere as a whole. Reducing it in one region will not help if it is increased or maintained in another. The destruction of the ozone shield exposes not just one, but many, nations to ultraviolet radiation; so the decision by the Europeans or the Americans to phase out the production of CFCs will not protect them if undeveloped countries continue to use them.
C49 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 37 / / VT95
Neither of the above menaces can be adequately countered within the limits of jurisdiction of national sovereign states, a fact not always readily admitted by politicians; and when it is recognized resort is taken to diplomacy and international agreement. This has the disadvantage that agreements are always between sovereign governments, which interpret their terms as they wish, often in conflicting and controversial ways, and always in accordance with what is seen by the party concerned as its national interest, so that the intended effect of the agreement is often nullified. Even worse is the possibility that the parties to the agreement are free at any time to renounce it, and there is no lack of cases in which commitments have been simply ignored and treaties violated as happened to suit any one of the signatories. In particular, the problem is ever-present of how to supervise and detect infringements, which occur with abundant frequency even among apparently trustworthy parties.
C50 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 81 / / VT95
That organizations like the League of Nations and the United Nations, whatever advantages they can provide, are incapable of preventing wars and are seldom able to pacify determined combatants has time and again become dismally apparent. That they cannot ensure the observance of treaties is equally manifest, and they certainly could not underwrite or maintain any global plan that would be adequate to save the Earth's ecology from disruption. It is, then, clearly only delusory complacency and visionary optimism that can persuade politicians and academic theorizers that contemporary problems can successfully be met through their agency. The only realistic and shrewdly practical reformers are those who advocate world federation, the one and only expedient that has any real chance of success, and one for which examples on a smaller scale are plentiful, have proved impressively and stably democratic, and are practically effective.
C51 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 28 / / VT95
What is clear is that the United Nations is incapable of taking effective action as long as its members consider national interests primary, and global requirements subordinate to them, as sovereign independent nations are bound to do (for reasons that will become clearer in what is to follow), whatever they may agree to undertake in conferences such as the Rio summit; and that, as events have proved, has been indecisive and niggling. '5 I In short, there is no sign yet that people in general or their leaders are really aware of the imminence or the magnitude of the threats to human survival, nor is there any evidence of a corresponding feeling of urgency. But if determined action is not taken very soon, the race will court its own extinction, along with so many other endangered species.
C52 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 56 / / VT95
Proposed reforms of the United Nations have included the enlargement of the Security Council, the abolitions of the veto by its permanent members, direct election of representatives to the General Assembly, and the removal of the present prohibition against interference in the internal affairs of members. None of these reforms, however, would materially change the international system in a way that could ensure the pacific settlement of disputes, because all of them retain intact the sovereign rights of the nations and the obligation laid down in the charter of the organization to uphold the sovereign independence of its member states. The last suggestion, in fact, is self-frustrating in that context, because sovereign states will not brook outside interference in their internal affairs, and any attempt to adopt such measures by the international body could well be viewed as a hostile act and might even be militarily resisted.
C53 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 74 / / VT95
In fact, national identity usually turns out to be quite literally mythical: the belief by people with a common culture in their descent from a common ancestor, for which there is no good historical evidence.
C54 / ERROL E. HARRIS, (World Constitution and Parliament Association) 1993 "One World or None: Prescription for Survival" p. 25 / / VT95
For centuries we have been encouraged by our religion and by our educators to think of human beings as somehow different from other natural creatures. Religion has taught us to think of ourselves as differing from other animals by having immortal souls. Scientists have made us believe that nature is a sort of machine put at our disposal to use and exploit in whatever ways we can devise, and the Bible (for instance, the first chapter of Genesis) seems to justify the belief. Only very recently has science discovered that the universe is a single whole, that nature is one system of interdependent parts, and that humankind is totally dependent upon the maintenance of the balance of nature for its survival. So we still tend to think we can get along quite nicely while ignoring the effect that our behavior has upon the environment, and we are reluctant to give up our habits of exploiting natural resources for our own immediate comfort and convenience, without consideration of the consequences. As a result, we find it hard to realize the nature (let alone the acuteness) of the problem that confronts us today, and we resist admitting it in all kinds of devious ways.
C55 / Jamin B. Raskin staff writer April 5, 1993 HEADLINE: Time to give aliens the vote again; green-card power; The Nation / / PKK-LN-VT95
Governments are getting the point that we cannot treat the world as a global village for purposes of capital investment and as a set of remote islands for purposes of local political involvement. At a time when billions of dollars traverse nation-state boundaries every day, it is archaic to define citizenship only as membership in a nation-state and then vertically impose that definition on lower levels of government.
C56 / Ben J. Wattenberg and Karl Zinsmeister, fellows at the American Enterprise Institute, April 1990, "The Case for More Immigration" Commentary in The Reference Shelf: Immigration to the United States, p. 158 Robert Emmet Long, ed. / / pkk \\ VT95
We have long since passed the point when we could hope to be a nation in the tribal sense. We are ethnically, religiously, and racially diverse. This does not always make for easy relations, but there is no changing it.
C57 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 109 / / VT95
Even if it can bring peace and law and order, a government which can do away with all rebellion and violence may not be a good thing. War and . public rebellion and violence are not always bad. Freedom is more important than peace and public order. Fortunately there have been people willing to lose their lives fighting for liberty. A world government that could really guarantee peace would be a world government that could also always over-come revolutionaries fighting for freedom and against government control and oppression. Sometimes the possibility of violent revolution is needed to stop too much power from being concentrated in the hands of the rulers. As Thomas Jefferson noted, "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure. " Sometimes a violent struggle for power is better than allowing those who have accumulated governmental power to continue using that power to oppress others. But it would be almost impossible to carry out a successful rebellion against an oppressive government that encompasses the whole world.
C58 / William F. Jasper, Editor, October 4, 1993, "Shackling Planet Earth" p. 28 The New American / / PKK VT95
To any farmer, rancher, logger, miner, developer, businessman, or property owner who has had to wrestle with the ordeal of attempting to comply with local, state, or federal environmental impact statements, the idea of a planetary EPA demanding similar compliance must be a nightmare too horrible to contemplate. But to the one-world corporate statists who plan on ruling, it makes wonderful sense.
C59 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 91 / / VT95
Despite their criticism of "the existing state system" it is not clear where McDougal, Lasswell, and Chen themselves stand on the desirability of a world federation. These writers seem to be inclined toward reliance on contemporary trends toward greater global awareness and gradual change in international law rather than a radical structural change which would replace "the existing state system" with a federal world government. They say: "The choice in features of world constitutive process is not one of a simple dichotomy: either of a world controlled solely by 'sovereign' nation-states or of a world government supplanting all the existing nation-states. But the use of the ex pression "world government" is qualified here in a way which suggests a unitary global state rather than democratic world federation in which existing nation-states retain some of their sovereignty and in which the various participants mentioned by the authors ("nation-states, international governmental organizations, political parties, pressure groups, and private associations") would still be able to interact in the process of promoting human rights.
C60 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 106 / / VT95
Another aspect of the feasibility problem in relation to trying to create a world federation is the general opposition to any kind of change, especially change involving yielding of political control. In the nonpolitical arena, consider the stubborn resistance among the general public of the United States to adopt the metric system of measurements.
C61 / RONALD J. GLOSSOP, (Prof. Southern Illinois University) 1993 "World Federation? A critical analysis of Federal World Government" p. 104 / / VT95
Another reason that it is unrealistic to suppose that world government can come into existence in the foreseeable future is that the world lacks the sense of community which is a prerequisite to the creation of a government. It is not only the leaders who are not ready to make a move to create a world federation for the world community. Most people identify themselves on the basis of their nationality rather than as citizens of the world community.
C62 / PATRICK O'FLAHERTY author of the novel, Priest Of God. April 29, 1993, HEADLINE: Globe isn't any village The Toronto Star / / PKK-LN-VT95
Far from forming themselves into larger blocs, the peoples of the world seem to be splitting into smaller units that more truly reflect their separate identities.
C63 / PATRICK O'FLAHERTY author of the novel, Priest Of God. April 29, 1993, HEADLINE: Globe isn't any village The Toronto Star / / PKK-LN-VT95
The notion of a "global village" is one that writers who like to simplify the complex world we live in picked up from Marshall McLuhan and keep parroting as if it were a truth. It is probably one of the biggest myths of the 20th century. Radio waves travel fast, but so what? Between us and Angola there remain the same vast impediments of oceans, languages, and cultures. We can see the Angolans on TV, or hear them talk on radio, but we are as removed from them and their problems as we ever were.
C64 / RICHARD D. LAMM, former Governor of Colorado, & Gary Imhoff, 1985; THE IMMIGRATION TIME BOMB: THE FRAGMENTING OF AMERICA p. 44 \\ PPK-VT95
The first way does have the virtue of simplicity, and it wouldn't require us to increase the protection we give to our borders. Sasha Lewis, the author who identified so many abuses of illegal immigrants, would recommend it. She believes that we can solve the problem of illegal immigration by simply abandoning all limits on legal immigration. But this solution has one flaw: in the real world, it is impossible to open the United States to all comers. We would be overwhelmed by the hundreds of thousands, the millions of people who would take advantage of our foolish invitation, and we would quickly be deluged by the masses of its grateful accepters. Within a very few years, we would either withdraw the invitation or find ourselves reduced to the standard of living of Pakistan or Bangladesh---at which time massive migration to this country would cease to be a serious problem (though emigration from it would no doubt set record levels).
C65 / The San Diego Union-Tribune May 14, 1993 HEADLINE: Chinese boat people New immigration trend must be contained p. B-6 / / PKK-VT95
The United States is proud of its diversity. Our melting-pot heritage defines American culture and society. We would like to accept all people who are willing to work hard and prosper, but we cannot afford unlimited immigration. No country can. That's why illegal immigration, whether from Haiti, Mexico or China, must be thwarted.
C66 / RICHARD D. LAMM, former Governor of Colorado, & Gary Imhoff, 1985; THE IMMIGRATION TIME BOMB: THE FRAGMENTING OF AMERICA p. 18 PPK-VT95
Many people oppose immigration reform and argue against controlling immigration because they believe in a new world order, in the rise of internationalism, and in the demise of nation-states. While their vision may be commendable and their ideals unquestionable, their sense of reality is limited. The world is divided into nations. It will be divided into nations for as long as we can see into the future.
C67 / ANTHONY RICHMOND, Prof. Sociology, York Univ. [Canada], 1988; IMMIGRATION AND ETHNIC CONFLICT p. 106 \\ VT95
Completely unrestricted immigration would undoubtedly disrupt the economic and social systems of advanced societies, but moderate levels of immigration are well within the absorptive capacity of these countries. Indeed, in the long run, the declining rates of growth of population in post-industrial societies (and the imminent absolute decline of population in some western European countries) will mean that positive net immigration will be to their own economic advantage. Only through immigration (on a scale large enough to compensate for outward movements of population and the effects of an aging population) will it be possible to sustain the levels of economic productivity necessary to provide adequate health and welfare services, including those directed toward the elimination of environmental pollution.
C68 / Richard Lamm, former governor Of Colorado. and Gary Imhoff, 1985: THE IMMIGRATION TIME THE FRAGMENTING OF AMERICA, p, X \\ PPK-VT95
A country cannot have a "no border" policy any more than a house can have a "no door" policy.
69 / MARILYN HOSKIN, Prof. Political Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1991, NEW IMMIGRANTS AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY, P. 51 \\ VT95
-MS Given the fluid or uncommitted nature of the political forces involved in immigration, it is reasonable to suggest that our ability to deal with it would be significantly enhanced by a comprehensive examination of public sentiment--not only its general direction and intensity, but also its roots, its relationship to economic and social factors, and its political outlets. The climate of public opinion has always been important in facilitating or obstructing the integration of new social groups, both as the source of dominant theories (or myths) about the place of foreigners in the host society and as a source of pressure for one type of political action over another. Opinion is, quite simply, part of the environment foreigners have to overcome before they enter and face after they arrive.
C70 / GEORGES VERNEZ (director of the Education and Human Resources)The San Diego Union-Tribune October 15, 1993, Pg. B-7 HEADLINE: From bonanza to headache Immigration in California has changed character (L / N) / / MS-VT95
And, we do not even have accurate ongoing data on the most basic item, i. e. , the number of immigrants, legal and undocumented as well as refugees who settle in California every year. Beyond that, we lack systemic information about the pattern of public services used by different groups of immigrants; the effects of public service use on the nature and speed of immigrants' linguistic, economic and social integration and that of their children; and the budgetary, institutional and community relations effects of sustained cumulative waves of immigrants on local jurisdictions. So, we are left to making guesstimates to inform on such key issues as the net effects of immigration on state, county and local demand for services and for tax revenues, which does not constitute a good basis for guiding policies.
C71 / Rep. John Conyers, (Representative from Michigan. Chair Committee on Government Operations) August 4, 1993 "The Immigration and Naturalization Service: Overwhelmed and unprepared for the future. " House Report 103-21 6, Second Report by the Committee on Government Operations, P. 33 / MS-VT95
' Similarly, INS has serious problems in the management of information. INS decision making and programs are flawed because of the lack of methods to collect information, to sort it, to analyze it, to verify it. " INS has also failed to comply with Federal requirements for protecting information contained in computer systems. As a result, important program and enforcement information is at risk, for destruction, alteration, and theft.
C72 / Rep. John Conyers, (Representative from Michigan. Chair Committee on Government Operations) August 4, 1993 "The Immigration and Naturalization Service: Overwhelmed and unprepared for the future. " House Report 103-21 6, Second Report by the Committee on Government Operations, P. 18 / MS-VT95
Information management is another area plagued with long-standing problems. Because of the lack of resources and planning for information systems, INS managers and field officials do not have information that is reliable and timely to carry out its responsibilities. (104) GAO testified that INS must begin with the basics to "define its information needs. "(105) GAO's findings are consistent with those of the inspector general, (106) who said that the INS 'lacks methods to collect information, to sort it, to analyze it, to verify it. (107) As he explained: . . . when you have inaccurate, inadequate, or late information, how do you make important decisions and make priority decisions?" (108) (He also told the subcommittee that INS has , over 100 unique , automated systems supporting every aspect of INS mission. INS spent $300 million in 3 years for automated systems and plans to spend more money on systems that perform duplicate functions. )
C73 / Charles W. Hall , Steve Bates, Washington Post Staff Writers April 25, 1994, HEADLINE: Illegal Immigrants Pose Issues Of Cost, Conscience for Area The Washington Post / PKK-LN-VT95
"It's become the dominant issue in human services, " said Charles Short, secretary for health and human services in Montgomery County. "It's fair for my taxpayer to ask me how much of my tax money is going to illegal aliens. The story here is, we really don't know. "
C74 / GEORGES VERNEZ (director of the Education and Human Resources)The San Diego Union-Tribune October 15, 1993, Pg. B-7 HEADLINE: From bonanza to headache Immigration in California has changed character (L / N) / / MS-VT95
My last point is a word of caution. Legislators will need to scrutinize carefully the "facts" about the effects of immigration and about immigrants that they are going to hear. And that includes those presented by the so-called experts. We simply do not know enough about the effects of the more recent wave of immigrants. Most of the studies we continue to rely on used 1980 data on immigrants who entered the country under different economic and social conditions. Thus, they have examined a somewhat different phenomenon than the present one.
C75 / Julian Simon Professor of Business, University of Maryland 1990 Population Matters: People, Resources, Environment, and Immigration. p8 / / pkk / VT 95
In other words, people seem to be accepting or rejecting these ideas not on the validity of the data and theories that are presented, but rather on whether they believe that the ideas will help or hinder them getting what they want.
C76 / MARILYN HOSKIN, Prof. Political Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1991, NEW IMMIGRANTS AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY, P. 12-3 \\ MS-VT95
Two important themes relevant to this analysis emerge from the extensive and varied theoretical work on immigration. First, theories of immigration derive from the same normative concerns which have inspired more classical and general works, from Malthusian ideas of overpopulation to Durkheimian concepts of labor division to Marxian arguments about inevitable class conflict. In the process, they have made it clear that greater attention must be paid to understanding the meaning of immigrant minorities in traditional pluralist theories of democracy. Second, immigration models have been reasonably successful in taking the first steps to theory by identifying factors which influence immigration and integration of minorities, from war to economic growth to personal drive. Work on obvious and non contentious components (such as postwar relocation) has not prevented consideration of either more polemical or more subtle phenomena (such as racism or humanitarian limits). Still, despite an impressive volume of research, there is no clear agreement among scholars or practitioners as to which explanatory model of immigration is most persuasive, nor is there even consensus on how the various levels of analysis might be reconciled or integrated.
C77 / Myron Weiner, (Ford International Professor of Political Science at MIT) 1993 International Migration and Security (edited by Myron Weiner), p. 3 / / MS-VT95
But little systematic comparative attention has been given to the ways in which international Population movements create conflicts within and between states, that is, to population flows as an independent rather than as a dependent variable. A study of these effects is necessary to understand why states and their citizens often have an aversion to international migration even when there are economic benefits.
C78 / David Clark Scott, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor March 15, 1994, HEADLINE: Mexico Unhappy With US Border Policy / PKK-LN-VT95
Mr. Bustamante says the joint study on migration may be important for reducing tension between the countries. ''We need to establish common credible data on migration flows. We are using different terms and definitions, '' he says. His institution and the Population Studies Center at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles are beginning a research project analyzing immigration flows and the social and economic impact of migrants on Los Angeles. The study will utilize new research methods that should provide the most accurate estimate of how many Mexicans and Central Americans cross into the US illegally each year. Policy makers currently use rough estimates.
C79 / Douglas Robertson; professor of geophysics, MIT. , April, 1990 (Communication Research, p252) / / JKM-VT95
"Most of the problems facing our civilization today could be reduced or even eliminated with a massive influx of information. A partial list of those problems reads like a litany from the Apocalypse: famine, pestilence, poverty, war , illiteracy, intolerance. There is hardly a problem known to humankind that could not be alleviated by supplying the right kind of information.
C80 / Leah Wilds, journalist, 1990 (Understanding Who Wins: Organizational Behavior and Environmental Politics, p8) / / jkm-VT95
"Analyses are most useful when they move the analyst beyond a top-down examination of the laws, politics, and institutional mechanisms involved to the assessment of alternate solutions and the development of concrete strategies. This not only includes defining the problem and the context in which it will be resolved. It will occur. The more systematic and rigorous the analysis, the more likely that potential barriers and constraints can be identified and managed. "
C81 / Douglas Robertson, professor of geophysics, MIT, April, 1990 (Communication Research, p253) / / jkm-VT95
"(W)e have the advantage that our predictions need cover only a few years rather than centuries. Such is the staggering pace of the changes that we now face.
C82 / MARILYN HOSKIN, Prof. Political Science, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1991, NEW IMMIGRANTS AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY p. 10 \\ MS-VT95
Immigration research has not suffered from a shortage of analytical . frameworks. Macro-level theories have been the most extensively developed, especially those which accord primary status to economic forces and global or systemic adjustment.
C83 / SYDNEY STAHL WEINBERG, Prof. History, Ramapo College, 1992; SEEKING COMMON GROUND: MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF IMMIGRANT WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES, \\ MS-VT95
The study of immigration history has been distorted and impoverished by the omission of women's roles in the transition to life in the United States.
C84 / Sidney Stahl Weinberg, Prof. History, Ramapo College, 1992; SEEKING COMMON GROUND; MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF IMMIGRANT WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES, P12 / / ms-VT95
Historians of immigration need not follow the pattern set by anthropologists and consider women's history simply an additional field for investigation-- an appendage of the real thing. It would be unfortunate if women's experiences remained the subjects of isolated monographs without being incorporated into the analytic framework of immigration research, as scholars in the field have recently warned. The challenge is to enlarge the framework we use to include gender and thus correct assumptions that prevent a meaningful inclusion of women's roles in immigration history.
C85 / David Bar-Tel, Prof.. Sociology at Tel Aviv University, offered the following authoritative claim in 1990 (Jour of Social Issues, Vol. 46, p78) / / VT95
"Delegitimization occurs in ethnocentrism when an outgroup is perceived as very different and devalued. Since delegitimization can lead to the most severe consequences, including genocide, it is vital to understand it better and to attempt to reduce it. "
C86 / Irvin Horowitz, Professor of Social Policy, Rutgers 1980 Taking Genocide p.189 / / VT 95
A significant task of the state in establishing a genocidal system is its capacity to politically neutralize vast population sectors. This can be achieved in various ways: delineation of outsider and insider group distinctions to lessen fears of those not targeted for immediate destruction.
C87 / Hirsch and Seith 91 (Herbert, Prof. of Poli Sci at Virginia, Roger, Prof. of Gov. at William Mary, Genocide) p38
If the twentieth century is any indication, the end may result from words which are used to motivate, justify, and rationalize murder on a scale unprecedented in human history. The seemingly mysterious connection between words and actions, between language and behavior, and language and responsibility has been a puzzle of enduring interest and fascination for scholars of many disciplines. Yet in an age in which political discourse has been intended to "make lies sound truthful and murder respectable" (Orwell, 1954, p171), there have been few explicit attempts to delineate the role of language in bringing about, sustaining, and covering up acts of mass slaughter and extermination.
C88 / Israel Charny Exec. Director. of the International Conference. on the Holocaust 1982 How Can we Commit the Unthinkable?: Genocide, The Human Cancer / / VT95
Natural differences between people readily cause projections of weakness, vulnerability, and mortality onto those who are different and weaker than we are. Often groups seize on one another as objects for the projection of their deepest dread of dying. This is one of the main reasons that people have never been able to stop the terrible recurrences of war and genocide.
C89 / Frantz Fanon, Prof. of Psychology at Boston College, 1985 Frantz Fanon and the Psychology of Oppression by H. Bulhan / / VT95
The fear of physical; death not only hinders the possibility of freedom, but also limits productive and meaningful living. Those who submit to oppression may continue to breathe, eat, and sleep. They may congratulate themselves for having preserved biological life. Unfortunately, however, they only exchange one form of death for another. . This is so because as they submit to oppression and preserve biological life, they invariably suffer a degree of psychological and social death. Even their physical survival remains tenuous. They enjoy a stay of execution so long as they serve the interest of the oppressor. But their psychological and social death continues without interruption so long as their fear of physical death persists. .