Paula Skowron and John Gordon Miller
Several issues seem to be reasonably obvious in analyzing this particular topic. There is no clear answer to any of them, but they are likely to form the framework for most affirmative attempts to occupy ground which the negative will be unprepared to attack.
First, what does strengthen really mean? It may mean to make more restrictive (affirmatives may cut down on immigration), or it may mean to improve in some way (affirmatives will choose to change some regulation which would not change the number or flow of immigrants), or it may mean to try a new and better approach (affirmatives may advocate an increase in immigration or even open borders). Obviously, the last two options make it much more difficult for the negative to attack using a basic "immigration is not bad, it is good" strategy. Don't automatically think that the affirmative will want to stop or slow immigration.
Second, does the regulation being strengthened have to already exist? For something to be strengthened, it must already exist. Negative's might argue that new regulations are just that, and not strengthened regulations which already exist.
Third, what does immigration policy contain? It obviously includes visa, green card, and citizenship regulations. However, does it also involve our refugee policies involving resettlement in other nations? This might strengthen our regulations while not bringing any additional refugees to the USA...in fact it might bring fewer. Are deportations (how we send people back where they came from) a part of regulating immigration "to" the USA? Also, immigration is closely related to many other public policy issues, and affirmative might argue that by supporting other policies (NAFTA, for example) the result or effect would be to strengthen regulations.
Fourth, immigration may merely be the mechanism which affirmative teams are using to meet policy goals not immediately related to immigration. For example, a program might be used to give financial and other inducements to get former soviet nuclear scientists to come to the USA instead of to countries which are trying to lure them with the thought of using them to produce nuclear weapons. Likewise, USA citizenship might be offered to the evil elite of some small nation (Haiti, for example) so that they will take their money and leave, come to the USA, and stop oppressing their own people. A similar idea would be to regulate immigration to discourage terrorism.
Fifth, how much must the affirmative change regulations in order to meet the term "substantially"? Many affirmatives will offer tiny changes with few disadvantages (change form 106D to recyclable paper) and negatives need to be prepared to utilize this as a topicality argument.
1. Fixed or set in purpose T1
2. Decisive, determined T2
THAT - Something pointed out, a pronoun T3-6
1. Used emphatically, the pre eminent T7-8
2. Is specific, not general like a or an T9-10
UNITED STATES - The fifty states, territories, etc. T11
1. Three branches and all agencies T12
2. Is specific institutions and agencies T13
3. Whole class of officeholders T14
4. The rules of the state T15
5. A fictitious entity, controlled by the people T16
1. Obligation and duty T17-19
2. Does not mean will T20
1. Is only determinable in context T21-22
2. Not total, but not minimal T23-24
1. To make stronger T25-28
2. To consolidate, entrench, augment T29
3. Give support T30
1. Rules prescribed by authority T31
2. Having force of law, issued by executive authority T32
1. Belonging to T33
2. Many meanings T34-35
IMMIGRATION -- Foreigners coming for permanent residence T36-38
1. INS implements immigration policy T39
2. Immigration policy is concerned about how people come from abroad T40
3. Broad definition of immigration policy includes foreign policy and economic policy T41
4. Foreign policy changes do not effect immigration T42
5. Immigration policy must define what an immigrant is T43
6. Enforcement policies important to any policy T44
1. Towards T45-48
2. No set meaning T49
T2 / WEBSTER'S COLLEGIATE THESAURUS, 1976, P. 673. , \\ PS-VT95
RESOLVED: BENT, DECISIVE, DETERMINED, INTENT, RESOLUTE, SET, SETTLED.
T3 / OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1971: (COMPACT VERSION, VOL. II, P. 3277), \\ PS-VT95
THAT: "A SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 1. DENOTING A THING OR PERSON POINTED OUT"
T4 / WEBSTER'S NINTH NEW COLLEGIATE DICTIONARY, 1991, P. 1221. , \\ PS-VT95
THAT: THE PERSON, THING, OR IDEA INDICATED, MENTIONED, OR UNDERSTOOD FROM THE SITUATION.
T5 / WEBSTER'S NINTH NEW COLLEGIATE DICTIONARY, 1991, P. 1221. , \\ PS-VT95
THAT: ONE OR A GROUP OF THE INDICATED KIND.
T6 / OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1971:(COMPACT VERSION, VOL. II P. 3277), \\ PS-VT95
THAT: 6. RELATIVE PRONOUN; A. OF A THING IN A GENERAL SENSE
T7 / RANDOM HOUSE DICTIONARY, 1966, p. 1470. , \\ PS-VT95
THE: used to mark a noun as indicating the best known, most approved, most important.
T8 / OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1973, p. 2277. , \\ PS-VT95
T9 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOL. 86, 1954, \\ PS-VT95
THE: THE. IT IS GENERALLY USED BEFORE NOUNS WITH A SPECIFYING OR PARTICULARIZING EFFECT, AND AS OPPOSED TO THE GENERALIZING EFFECT OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE "A" OR "AN"
T10 / THE RANDOM HOUSE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FIRST EDITION, 1987, P. 1965. , \\ PS-VT95
THE: USED, ESP. BEFORE A NOUN, WITH A SPECIFYING OR PARTICULARIZING EFFECT, AS OPPOSED TO THE INDEFINITE OR GENERALIZING FORCE OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE A OR AN. .
T11 / THE ATTORNEY'S POCKET DICTIONARY, 1981, P. 493. \\ PS-VT95
. . . "when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Island.
T12 / BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY, 5th ed. , 1979, p. 625. \\ PS-VT95
Government. In the United States, government consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches in addition to administrative agencies. In a broader sense, includes the federal government and all its agencies and bureaus, state and county governments, and city and township government.
T13 / A DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY, 1942, p. 119. \\ PS-VT95
Government: This term is used in two sense. Sometimes it is used to indicate the particular administrative institutions or agencies of a society whose function it is to control individual and national rights, and, in general, promote the public welfare; all in accordance with the methodological principles and for the sake of the ends decreed to be legitimate by the sovereign. A government is, consequently, purely instrumental, and cannot rightly create sanctions for its own activities.
T14 / BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY, 5TH ED. , 1979, P. 625. \\ PS-VT95
Government: The whole class or body of officeholders or functionaries considered in the aggregate, upon whom devolves the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state.
T15 / BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY, 5TH ED. , 1979, P. 625. \\ PS-VT95
Government: The system of policy in a state; the form of fundamental rules and principles by which a state or nation is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions.
T16 / WORDS AND PHRASES, 1959, VOL. 18A, PG. 241. \\ PS-VT95
Government: The "government" is a fictitious entity, created by the people, the corporate entity through which the people act, and all departments of government and officers are only the instrumentalities through which the government acts.
T17 / WORDS AND PHRASES, 1964, VOL. 39, PG. 311. \\ PS-VT95
Should: " 'Ought' is a synonym of 'should, ' and both words clearly imply obligation. "
T18 / WORDS AND PHRASES, 1986, VOL. 39, PG. 74. \\ PS-VT95
Should: " 'Should' is the past tense of shall and its use as an auxiliary verb means to be obliged or must, and 'should' comprehends the thought of 'ought. ' "
T19 / WORDS AND PHRASES, 1959, VOL. 39, PG. 311. \\ PS-VT95
Should: "The word 'should' denotes duty whereas the word 'could' denotes no more than a possibility. "
T20 / BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY, 1979, PG. 1237. \\ PS-VT95
Should: "Should: it is not normally synonymous with 'may, ' and although often interchangeable with the word, 'would, ' it does not ordinarily express certainty as 'will' sometimes does. "
T21 / WORDS AND PHRASES, 1951, CARD LISTED UNDER SUBSTANTIALLY \\ PS-VT95
The word "substantially" is a relative term and should be interpreted in accordance with context of claim in which it is used. Moss v. Patterson Ballagh Corp. , D. C. Cal. , 89 F. Supp. 619, 627.
T22 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOL. 83, 1953, SUBSTANTIALLY \\ PS-VT95
Substantially: A relative and elastic term which should be interpreted in accordance with the context in which it is used. While it must be employed with care and discrimination, it must, nevertheless, be given effect.
T23 / STROUD'S JUDICAL DICTIONARY IN 1973 \\ PS-VT95
"Substantially" does not mean trivial or minimal. Neither does it mean total. "
T24 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOLUME 83, 1953, SUBSTANTIALLY \\ PS-VT95
The term has been construed as not meaning wholly or completely, but it may mean part, or about.
T25 / The Scribner-Banton English Dictionary, Edwin B. Williams, general editor, 1977, p. 901, AGL VT95
strengthen. vt. 1. to make strong or stronger.
T26 / The Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary, Joyce M. Hawkins & Robert Allen, 1991, editors, 1991, p. 1433, AGL, VT95
strengthen. v. tr. 1. to make or become stronger.
T27 / Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Edition, Della Summers, Editorial Director, 1987, p. 1046, AGL, VT95
strengthen. v. 1. to become or make strong or stronger,
T28 / The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, R. E. Allen, editor, 1990, p. 1206, VT95
strengthen. v. tr. 1. make or become stronger.
T29 / Legal Thesaurus Deluxe Edition, editor - William C. Burton, 1980, p. 979, AGL, VT95
strengthen. aid, bear (support) compound, concentrate (consolidate) corroborate, develop, document, edify empower, enable, endue, enforce, enhance, establish. . .
T30 / The Oxford English Dictionary, edited by R. W. Burchfeild, 1989, p. 882, AGL, Vt95
strengthen. trans. 1. to give moral support, courage or confidence to (a person); to encourage, hearten, inspire, fix in resolution.
T31 / BALLENTINE'S LAW DICTIONARY WITH PRONUNCIATIONS, THIRD EDITION, 1969, P. 1156. \\ PS-VT95
Regulation: Rule of order prescribed by superior or competent authority relating to action of those under its control.
T32 / BALLENTINE'S LAW DICTIONARY WITH PRONUNCIATIONS, THIRD EDITION, 1969, P. 1156. \\ PS-VT95
Regulation: Regulation is rule or order having force of law issued by executive authority of government.
T33 / BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY, 5TH ED. , 1979, P. 880. \\ PS-VT95
Of: Belonging to. Denoting possession or ownership.
T34 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOLUME 67, 1978, P. 200. \\ PS-VT95
Of: The word "of" is a preposition. It is a word of different meanings, and susceptible of numerous different connotations. It may be used in its possessive sense to denote possession or ownership. It may also be used as a word of identification and relation, rather than as a word of proprietorship or possession. "Of" may denote source, origin, existence, descent, or location, or it may denote that from which something issues, proceeds, or is derived. The term may indicate the aggregate or whole of which the limited word or words denote a part, or of which a part is referred to, thought of, affected, etc.
T35 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOLUME 67, 1978, P. 200. \\ PS-VT95
Of: The word "of" is variously defined as meaning belonging to; relating to; pertaining to; connected with; or associated with. It is also defined as meaning from; among; by; concerning; in respect to; in; or over. The word is also used to indicate that with respect to which an attribute is ascribed, with regard to which a fact is affirmed, or to which a measure of time or extent is applied. It also may mean owned by; or it may mean residing or resident in.
T36 / BALLENTINE'S LAW DICTIONARY WITH PRONUNCIATIONS, THIRD EDITION, 1969, P. 676. \\ PS-VT95
Immigration: The coming into a country of foreigners for purposes of permanent residence. The correlative term "emigrating" denotes the act of such persons in leaving their former country.
T37 / BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY, 5TH ED. , 1979, P. 583. \\ PS-VT95
Immigration: The coming of foreigners into the country for purposes of permanent residence.
T38 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOLUME 3, 1973, P. 847. \\ PS-VT95
Immigration: The term "immigration" is defined generally as the removing into one place from another; the act of immigrating; the entering into a country with the intention of residing in it.
T39 / Rep. John Conyers, (MI. Chair of the Committee on Government Ops) August 4, 1993, "The immigration and Naturalization Service: Overwhelmed and unprepared for the future. " House Report 103-216, Second Report by the Committee on Government Operations / / Vt95-MS
Responsibility for implementing these laws resides primarily at the Immigration and Naturalization Service[INS], Department of Justice. Ins facilitates the entry into the United States of persons legally admissible as visitors and immigrants. it is also responsible for preventing the unlawful entry and employment of those who are not eligible for admission. It must apprehend and remove those who reside in the United States unlawfully while, at the same time, grant assistance to those who are eligible for benefits under the immigration and Nationality Act.
T40 / CHRISTOPHER MITCHELL, Prof. Politics, New York University, 1992; in WESTERN HEMISPHERE IMMIGRATION AND UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY, "Introduction" p. 6-7 \\ MS-VT95
Immigration Policy, in turn, is defined as a set of concerns and actions about what persons from abroad should enter and / or remain in the United States and about the terms under which they will be permitted to do so.
T41 / Elizabeth Rolph [Research Fellow RAND and Urban Institute Program for Research on Immigration Policy] 1992 IMMIGRATION POLICIES: LEGACY FROM THE 1980'S AND lSSUES FOR THE 1990'S. p. 2 \\ SW VT95
Before we embark on a brief review of immigration policy, it is important to understand what immigration policy is and is not. Often, the definitional net is narrowly cast to include only policies that define '' legal eligibility to entertain other discussions, it is cast broadly to encompass policies that shape the flows of immigration, legal and illegal, including foreign policy and economic policy.
T42 / Elizabeth Rolph [Research Fellow RAND and Urban Institute Program for Research on Immigration Policy] 1992 IMMIGRATION POLICIES: LEGACY FROM THE 1980'S AND ISSUES FOR THE 1990'S, p. 3 SW VT95
Policies in other areas may also be adopted with the express intent of addressing immigration policy goals, in which case they too become part of the fabric of immigration policy. But policy making in associated areas (for instance, foreign policy) is less likely to expressly target immigration than it is to inadvertently affect immigration. Although such effects may be important, they cannot truly be defined as immigration policy and are not the subject of this inquiry.
T43 / Elizabeth Rolph [Research Fellow RAND and Urban Institute Program for Research on Immigration Policy] 1992 IMMIGRATION POLICIES: LEGACY FROM THE 1980'S AND ISSUES FOR THE 1990'S. p. 2 \\ SW VT95
:"Immigration policy making certainly begins with' establishing the rules that define who will be ac- corded the right to take up permanent residence and eventually become eligible for citizenship. These rules are likely to incorporate both quantitative and qualitative criteria that define how many people with what characteristics will be granted immigrant status. But who enters is only part of the policy equation.
T44 / Elizabeth Rolph [Research Fellow RAND and Urban Institute Program for Research on Immigration Policy] 1992 IMMIGRATION POLICIES: LEGACY FROM THE 1980'S AND ISSUES FOR THE 1990'S. p. 2 \\ SW VT95
"Enforcement policies, which permit authorized entry but prevent unauthorized entry, are also an important component of immigration policy. "
T45 / THE CYCLOPEDIC LAW DICTIONARY, 1940, P1107. \\ PS-VT95
To: "TO" OFTEN HAS A MEANING NEARLY SYNONYMOUS WITH "TOWARDS, " ALTHOUGH ITS ORDINARY MEANING IS NOT SATISFIED UNLESS THE POINT OR OBJECT IS ACTUALLY ATTAINED.
T46 / BOUVIER'S LAW DICTIONARY, 1946, P. 1180. \\ PS-VT95
To: IN MANY CASES THE MEANING IS NEARLY SYNONYMOUS WITH "TOWARD. "
T47 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOL. 86, 1954, P. 909. \\ PS-VT95
To: IN ITS ORDINARY MEANING, AND AS COMMONLY USED, THE WORD "TO" CONVEYS THE IDEA OF MOVEMENT TOWARD AND ACTUALLY REACHING A SPECIFIED POINT OR OBJECT, AND THE MEANING IS NOT SATISFIED UNLESS THE POINT OR OBJECT IS ACTUALLY ATTAINED.
T48 / WORDS AND PHRASES, VOL. 41A, 1950, P. 419. \\ PS-VT95
To: "TO, " AS COMMONLY USED, CONVEYS THE IDEA OF MOVEMENT TOWARDS, AND ACTUALLY REACHING, A SPECIFIED POINT OR OBJECT, AND THE MEANING IS NOT SATISFIED UNTIL THE POINT OR OBJECT BE ACTUALLY ATTAINED.
T49 / CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, VOLUME 86, 1954, P. 909. \\ PS-VT95
To: The preposition "to" is a flexible term, having no specific and no settled legal meaning, and its signification is to be ascertained from reason and the sense in which it is used.