BEST USA POLICY IS ONE OF COOPERATION, NOT LEADERSHIP
IT WILL TAKE SUSTAINED COOPERATIVE EFFORTS BY THE USA TO USHER IN A NEW COOPERATIVE SYSTEM OF WORLD ORDER
RICHARD N. HAASS, Director of Foreign Policy Studies, and Chair in International Security at the Brookings Institution, Foreign Affairs, September, 1999 / October, 1999; Pg. 37 HEADLINE: What to Do With American Primacy // ln-10/99-acs
THE WORLD described here will not come about solely from its inherent appeal. To the contrary, building and maintaining such an order requires sustained effort by the world's most powerful actor, the United States. Its ultimate success, in turn, demands that Americans properly handle their country's role as sole superpower of the world. American foreign policy must project an imperial dimension, although not in the sense of territorial control or commercial exploitation; such relationships are neither desirable nor sustainable today. Rather, the United States must attempt to organize the world along certain principles affecting both relations between states and conditions within them. The U.S. role should resemble that of nineteenth-century Great Britain, the global leader of that era. U.S. influence would reflect the appeal of American culture, the strength of the American economy, and the attractiveness of the norms being promoted. Coercion and the use of force would normally be a secondary option.
USA NEEDS TO AVOID OFFENSIVE EXAMPLES OF HEGEMONY: ACCEPT OTHERS AS EQUALS, NOT JUNIOR PARTNERS; STOP TRYING TO FORCE OUR VALUES ON OTHERS, AVOID INTERVENTION OVERSEAS
CHRISTOPHER LAYNE, The Plain Dealer November 17, 1999 SECTION: EDITORIALS & FORUM; Pg. 11B HEADLINE: SUPERPOWER ROLE IS SELF-DEFEATING
It is time to get past the superpower model and delineate a more productive U.S. role. The salient point is how to define America's interests. Some suggestions:
Washington should encourage, and accept, Europe's emergence as an equal - independent - actor in world politics.
The United States should stop trying to force its values and institutions on the rest of the world. In some cases, such as Russia, the American model is inappropriate and has done more harm than good.
Finally, the United States should not be so quick to intervene overseas, instead allowing other states and institutions to assume primary responsibility for the security of regions where America's security interests are not at risk.