Andrew Wiesner

Rhetoric of Reggae

December 2, 2009


STUDIO ONE: The Legendary Sound of Reggae Music


            When people think of some of the biggest names in the history of Reggae music, each one has a major thing in common: they all got their start at the legendary Studio One Record label.  Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer (The Wailers), The Skatalites, Lee “Scratch” Perry, Toots and the Maytals, Burning Spear, The Heptones, and many, many more all started their long careers at Studio One, under Sir Clement “Coxsone” Dodd, the owner and the man who started it all.  Some would argue “on a wider scale, it is also the story of Reggae itself, as Studio One was the pioneer of many developments of Reggae music, from Ska to Roots, from Dub to DJ.”[1]  Studio One was at the forefront of every aspect in the history of the Jamaican music which we now call Reggae.  Every transformation of music in Jamaica, from the early Ska days to the more recent dancehall and DJ days of the present, Studio One was the leading innovator in this new style of Reggae music.  There was no way around Coxsone Dodd, as he was always on top of the music industry in Jamaica.  Studio One is referred to being the “Motown of Reggae,”[2] and just like the Detroit Motown, the Jamaican Studio One had the same impact on music in Jamaica as Motown did on the United States.  “As Studio One started to produce major international artists on a regular basis it was not long before it was referred to as the University of Reggae and, indeed, the foundation label of all Reggae Music.”[3]  Studio One is the most influential record label to have ever been created in Jamaica as it was the most groundbreaking in all aspects of Reggae music history in Jamaica.  It was there from the beginning in the late 1950s, and it is still in business today. Reggae music today would not be the same if it wasn’t for Studio One and Coxsone Dodd. 

            The man behind the greatness of Studio One and who is synonymous with its name is the notorious Sir Clement “Coxsone” Dodd.  The historical story of Studio One is such that it “is as much that of Clement Dodd as it is the story of Studio One.” [4]  Clement Dodd got the nickname “Coxsone” (sometimes spelled without the “e”) from a British cricket player who played the same position as him when Coxsone was at the All Saints School.[5]  Coxsone Dodd was always a fan of music and even from an early age he used to play records for the people in his mother’s grocery store.  The records Coxsone used to play were Rhythm and Blues music (coincidentally Motown) from the United States.  It was here where Coxsone fell in love with music.  During the early 1950s, Coxsone moved to the United States (mostly Florida) to work on the farms as a crop-picker.  While here in the United States, Coxsone was introduced to jukeboxes, live bands at bars, and even the modern American DJ and this laid the groundwork for Coxsone and his ideas for setting up the Downbeat Soundsystem.[6] 

            The Downbeat Soundsystem was the original dancehall.  It consisted of a DJ playing the records, a turntable, and large amplified speakers.  Coxsone would use the records that he brought home with him from the United States, and then eventually he would have Rhythm and Blues records imported from the United States (mostly from Miami and New Orleans).[7]  The main attraction to Coxsone’s Downbeat Soundsystem was the DJ who was “playing the records and toasting in-between the discs.”[8]  This new feature of the Kingston dancehall scene quickly elevated Downbeat Soundsystem and Coxsone’s reputation.  Coxsone’s two biggest DJ’s were Count Machuki and King Stitt, whom became well known throughout Jamaica through this scene. 

“At the height of the sound systems, Coxsone Dodd would be running five different sound systems at once, each with a different DJ.”[9]  He quickly had competitors trying to outdo his Downbeat Soundsystem, as it was the most popular.  To insure that his sound system was the most exclusive, Coxsone used to scratch off the label of the records so only he would know what the record was and so his competitors could hear it, but wouldn’t know who it was.[10]  This enabled Coxsone to make sure that no one would have the same records as his and his sound systems would be the ones that everyone would go to (this method is still used today in Jamaica).  Coxsone’s empire was just starting to grow and soon enough Coxsone would turn to himself to find the next big hit.

As time went on, Rhythm and Blues in the United States was being replaced by Rock and Roll.  Since Rock and Roll was not the sound that Jamaicans wanted to hear, it was at this time when Coxsone Dodd decided to start recording his own artists in a local studio.[11]  Coxsone “chose the best of the local musicians, some of whom he hand-picked from musicians in the Jamaican orchestras of the day.”[12]  With his own musicians now, Coxsone started to record records strictly for the sound systems. “Dodd recorded local acts at RJR studios- but only for one-off discs which he could play through the handmade speakers of the sound system which he designed.”[13] Nobody else had these musicians making records for them and this made Coxsone’s Downbeat Soundsystem more unique than everyone else’s: Coxsone had his own sound, something that no one else has ever heard of and the music that was being made became more and more popular and was increasingly in demand by the people.  In 1959, Theophilus Beckford’s “Easy Snapping” was the first record released as a single under Coxsone Dodd (although it was recorded in 1956).[14]  “Instead of making a one-off pressing, or dub plate, he pressed enough to sell to his local dance fans.”[15] This became the start of the success of Studio One.

At first Coxsone was releasing records on many different labels, all of which he owned himself (i.e., Coxsone, Port O Jam, and Rolando and Powie).[16]  The one thing that Coxsone was missing at this time was his own studio where he could record the artists and then release the songs himself.  This dream of his came true in 1962, soon after Jamaica received its independence from Great Britain.  Coxsone Dodd bought a studio at 13 Brentford Road, Kingston, Jamaica;[17] this address stands alone in the world of Reggae music, as this became the place where Reggae music was essentially born.  Coxsone Dodd ran Studio One like an industry and he made the template for the people to follow him.  In addition to Studio One, Coxsone also owned a publishing company, Jamrec Publishing, and a record shop, Muzik City. In addition, Coxsone pressed and released the records himself. This comprehensive idea of vertically integrating a studio, a record label, record shops, and a dancehall sound system became the staple for the producers and innovators in Reggae music to follow him.[18]

            Another attribute that was practiced at Studio One would have to be the way they decided to release certain recordings.  Often, the artists would record something during the day, and when that track was finished, Coxsone would play it on his sound system that night.[19]  “At his sound system, Coxsone would often play dub plates from the

studio session to test them on audiences.”[20]  This allowed Coxsone to see the reaction of the crowds to the brand new record that was just made and therefore, he was able to determine whether or not this would be able to sell just by seeing the reaction of the audience to the track.  Coxsone would see if the people were dancing and feeling the new record, and if so, he would release it as single for everyone to enjoy.  It was the perfect place to test the records that were often made that very same day.

            One of the instrumental parts to Studio One was the concept of the in-house band.  This would be the only band used in the studio and they would lay down the music for the singer to put his lyrics over, while making their own recordings as well.  The most famous in-house band that was ever part of Studio One and the best Ska band of all time was The Skatalites.  The Skatalites (and thus Studio One and Coxsone Dodd) kicked in the era of Ska music.  Some of the original members of The Skatalites were: Tommy McCook, Rolando Alphonso, Johnny Moore, Lester Sterling, Don Drummond, Lloyd Knibb, Lloyd Brevett, Jerome Hinds, and Jackie Mittoo.[21]  A majority of the band attended the Alpha Boys School in Jamaica that was headed by nuns. [22]  It was here that they learned their skills as musicians and all of them were essential to the band as each played a different instrument. 

            At their time in Studio One, The Skatalites produced some the best songs known in the Reggae world, songs that have had a lasting impact on Jamaican music.  Being the in-house band, The Skatalites backed all of the famous artists that came through to Studio One.  In essence, The Skatalites made certain groups and artists famous, without any true recognition.  “The few performers who had international impact were not directly associated with The Skatalites.  But many of the hit songs which made the newly emerging record charts had The Skatalites as a group or strongly represented as the session men – including song of The Maytals, Delroy Wilson, and The Wailers, to only name a few.”[23]  These Studio One acts went on to have long lasting and well-known careers in Reggae music.

            Although The Skatalites are the most famous Ska band ever, they unfortunately didn’t last long as a band.  Internal problems in the band (trombonist Don Drummond murdered his girlfriend, the “rhumba dancer” Marguerita)[24] and the fact that there were strong, leading musicians throughout the band, The Skatalites split up in 1965, after only recording at Studio One for a year and half.[25]  Even though they were only together as The Skatalites for one and a half years, they were in the studio every day and they recorded an overwhelming amount of their best-known songs in that short time period.[26]  In 1965, “the band split into factions, with hornsman Tommy McCook forming the Supersonics and Roland Alphonso helming the Soul Brothers.”[27]  Roland Alphonso and the Soul Brothers (also known as the Soul Bros) stayed at Studio One, and thus became the new in-house band, while Tommy McCook went over Duke Reid’s Treasure Isle label to form his own in-house band.[28]

            The Skatalites made a lasting mark on the world reggae even though they were together for a limited time.  Coxsone Dodd and The Skatalites set a standard for what an in-house band should be like which was modeled for the many years to come.  The in-house band was now a permanent trademark for studios and record labels in Jamaica (especially for Studio One), and it all started with Coxsone Dodd. 

Following The Skatalites, there has been a long list of in-house bands, with each band playing to the new style of music as it was changing through the years.  After The Skatalites was the Soul Bros, who consisted of some of the remaining, original Skatalite members, most of whom played steadily following ska.  The Soul Bros formed into the Soul Vendors, which continued the rocksteady phase.  The next big in-house band for Studio One was the Soul Dimension, which formed out of the Soul Vendors.  The Soul Dimension brought in the era of Reggae music, as we know it today, led by Jackie Mittoo.[29]  The in-house band had been changing at Studio One, each one going with the new phase of Jamaican music and each one having their own significant influence on Reggae.  As has been stated before, this concept of the in-house band, starting with The Skatalites can be seen throughout the Jamaican music industry at this time, and everyone imitated the most successful studio at that time, Studio One.

Besides the Skatalites, there were many other groups and artists that came through Studio One that have had a major influence on Reggae music.  One of the most notable Reggae bands, with two of the most recognizable people in the history of Reggae music, started their careers at Studio One and that would be The Wailers.  The Wailers consisted of Reggae legends Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer.  The Wailers got their start early in music at a young age.  Bob Marley actually lived at Studio One for some time when he was in his teens:  “Bob Marley was the first child artist to actually live at Studio One when Coxsone also boarded him in a flat at the back of the studio.”[30]  Soon thereafter, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer joined Bob Marley and lived at Studio One.[31]  It was here where all three of these talented artists first recorded together at Studio One.  Coxsone Dodd developed The Wailers, like he did with so many other artists at that young age, and gave them their big break in the music world.  The world of music, not just Reggae, would be forever changed after The Wailers first record as it gave way to one of the greatest musicians, artists, and human beings to ever have lived in Bob Marley.

The Wailers were originally a Ska band and it wasn’t until their transformation over the years that they became Reggae.  The first album they made was titled The Wailing Wailers.  On this album, they were backed by The Skatalites, and produced memorable hits such as “Simmer Down” and “One Love” on this album[32].  These became instant Studio One classics and are known throughout the world.  As a result, The Wailers produced much more music in their time at Studio One, but like most of the artists at Studio One during this time, they left and went on to record at another label where they had huge success[33] and become the biggest Reggae band of all time.  Bob Marley and the rest of the Wailers felt that Coxsone was not paying them the proper amount of money for their work prompting them to leave Studio One and to join Chris Blackwell at Island Records.[34]

In addition to The Skatalites and The Wailers, Studio One could be described as a who’s who in Reggae music.  Almost every big name in all of the categories of Reggae music have been involved somehow, some way, in Studio One from musicians, to singers, to producers to DJs-- you weren’t anybody until you recorded at Studio One.  Some of the artists and groups that were at Studio One at one point or another were: Toots and the Maytals, The Heptones, Sugar Minott, The Abyssinians, Delroy Wilson, Alton Ellis, Dennis Alcapone, Burning Spear, Lee “Scratch” Perry, King Stitt, Prince Buster, Marcia Griffiths, Ken Boothe, The Ethiopian, Count Machuki, Michigan & Smiley[35], amongst many others who got their start right at Studio One.  Studio One was a breeding ground for Reggae artists in Jamaica, and if it wasn’t for Studio One and Coxsone Dodd giving these young aspiring artists a chance to do what they do best, it might have taken some years for us to finally know who these people were.

Over the years, Studio One grew larger and larger and their particular sounds became recognizable immediately upon the record hitting the turntable.  Through its in-house bands, Studio One was able to produce distinct music that was loved by fans, and quickly, popular tunes were being played over and over again.  Their music became so popular that other producers and owners of other record labels began to take the Studio One sound from them.  This was when the rhythms (better known as riddims) of Studio One were being used throughout the Jamaican music industry.  Since there weren’t any copyright laws put into place at that time (Jamaica just passed copyright laws fairly recently)[36] producers were able to take whatever they wanted from other artists because there were no obstacles to stop them which let Studio One’s competitors have an advantage over Studio One itself.  Studio One did the hard part; they created the original riddim which was then released to the people when other labels stole what was theirs in the first place.  Coxsone Dodd is quoted on the copyright laws that are in place in Jamaica, saying that: “I think it’s the best thing that ever happened for Jamaica since independence, and now that it’s a law, I think every creative person will benefit.”[37]

Although Studio One was having their original riddims taken from them and being used by their competitors, it didn’t mean that the people didn’t know where these riddims were originally coming from since all fans of Reggae knew that it was Studio One who made that particular record famous.  Every major Reggae artist ever at one point or another has been heard over a Studio One riddim. Even today, Studio One is still having an impact on Reggae music as we are still hearing the riddims from the 1960s and 1970s.  “The influence Studio One has had on this music goes deep and as today’s top dancehall producers continue to put their own spin on classic Studio One riddims, they keep the legacy of this legendary studio alive.”[38]  These riddims are still omnipresent in the world of Reggae music; we listen to the influence of Studio One riddims all the time when we listen to Reggae music.  Sometimes, one might believe that a song that is heard and played is a new beat, but actually that isn’t accurate.  More than half of the time, it will be a riddim that was made at Studio One in the height of its success in the 1960s and 1970s.

.  Coxsone came up with another creative idea with Sugar Minott after the other record labels were taking his old riddims because they weren’t any copyright laws.  Sugar Minott proposed to sing over an old Studio One riddim instead of writing new music.  Thus, Sugar Minott became the first Studio One artist to re-record using an old riddim.[39] “After Sugar Minott began to record new songs over old rhythm tracks from some of Studio One’s classic 1960s recordings, new artists at Studio One all started a similar thing.”[40] Once again, Coxsone Dodd was the first person in Reggae to come up with a new style of music for Jamaicans.  This practice of taking old riddims and making new songs with them would have a lasting effect not only on the Reggae artists themselves, but the producers that were making the music.

There are so many riddims that are still fundamental in making new Reggae music.  Some examples of these classic riddims are: “Throw Me Corn,” “I’ll Never Let You Go,” “Wire Higher,” “Nanny Goat,” “Real Rock,” “Vanity,” “Rockfort Rock,” “Picture On The Wall,” “Love Me Forever,” “Don’t Blame The Baldhead,” “Bobby Babylon,”[41] and many, many others.  These original riddims were used and inspired many artists to make their own tracks over them with a different variation of some sort, or even just taking that exact riddim and making a new song.  Again, Studio One was at the helm of the new style of making Reggae music.

With these old riddims being used for new tracks, so did a new era of Reggae music get ushered in: dancehall.  The dancehall scene was always prominent in Jamaica from the early days of sound systems and Coxsone Dodd and Studio One was always setting the bar during that time as well.  Nothing changed when dancehall culture quickly swept through Jamaica and became the newest form of Reggae music.  The concepts of dancehall are the same as it was on the sound systems. It would be outside, with huge amplified speakers and a DJ, not only putting the records on for the crowd, but the DJ would also “toast” in between the time the new record was being put on the turntable for everyone’s enjoyment[42].  The dancehall culture took this and made it into something bigger. 

Now, with the new records using the old riddims and the B-side (Dub tracks) growing more and more popular, dancehall exploded in Jamaica (both of which dancehall is based off of).  One of the most instrumental parts of dancehall would have to be the DJ who was the key to the dancehall because it is his job to make sure that everyone in the crowd is enjoying the music and having a good time.  Dancehall is known for the DJs and the man behind the microphone, “toasting” the crowd.   In the early days of Coxsone’s Downbeat Soundsystem, the DJs playing the record would entertain the crowd while the new record was getting ready to play.  This is the most important part of dancehall and it was changing over time.  “Led by legendary DJ’s like King Stitt, a style of talking and rhyming over the record (known as toasting) was born which evolved into dancehall reggae, which eventually gave birth to rap (yes, that rap!).”[43]  Coxsone Dodd was the first person to come up with the idea of the DJ, all the way back in the 1950s, and then, towards the end of the 1970s, his original idea of the DJ has grown into something a lot larger.  Dancehall grew to where there was a DJ and someone “toasting” over the Dub track or talking and rhyming to the crowd in between tracks.  This was the basis for Hip-Hop which consisted of: a DJ playing the songs and a person rhyming over it.  Once again, that music era started with Coxsone Dodd. 

Coxsone Dodd’s original sound system also gave birth to the new age of Reggae.  Many famous Reggae artists in today’s world are out of the dancehall era that is still very popular in Jamaica today.  Artists such as Yellowman, Beenie Man, Elephant Man, Buju Banton, and many others originated their skills through dancehall.  Coxsone Dodd was the innovator of the sound system time period that dominated the end of the 1950s, and again was the leader in dancehall that ruled the end of the 1970s and still today in Jamaica.  If it weren’t for Coxsone Dodd’s groundbreaking idea of a DJ, dancehall wouldn’t be what it is today.

During the early days of dancehall in the 1970s, Studio One was at its high point in the music industry.  They were leading record label in Jamaica and virtually a who’s who in Reggae music.  Although Studio One was very successful in every genre of Reggae music, times in Jamaica were becoming increasingly difficult.  A large amount of political violence was erupting and it was becoming harder to import the necessary materials so Coxsone could make records for distribution.[44]  So, at the end of the 1970s, Coxsone Dodd moved to the United States (to New York City), opened up his own record shop and studio to start over in a new country.[45]  Here in New York City, Coxsone was selling old Studio One records to the people of America,[46] introducing them to a sound never heard before.

The original Studio One closed down following Coxsone Dodd’s move from Jamaica.  Even though Studio One closed, that didn’t mean that its influence (and Coxsone Dodd’s as well) still wasn’t being felt in Jamaica.  After Coxsone left, producers were still using the old Studio One riddims from the 1960s. “In regard to Dancehall, it is ironic that even though Coxsone left for New York at the end of the 1970s (and pretty much stopped recording new Jamaican music at this point) it is maybe this genre to which Studio One has been the most pervasive – with literally thousands of records being made each year based around the classic Studio One rhythms of the 1960s.”[47]  The presence of Studio One and Coxsone Dodd will forever be embedded in Jamaican music, even after Studio One shut down-- its history, music, and ideology is still being used today in the world of Reggae.

Today, Studio One’s legacy is lived on through Soul Jazz Records, the top distributor of Studio One records.  Although Coxsone Dodd owned and ran so many other record labels at that time, none will have a bigger influence or impact that Studio One had on Reggae music.   Eventually, Coxsone Dodd returned to Jamaica and re-opened Studio One,[48] but that was short lived being that Coxsone Dodd died on May 5, 2004.[49]  His legend will forever live on…

“Ska gave way to rocksteady, rocksteady gave way to roots, roots to dub, and dub to dancehall, and so goes the chronology of reggae music in the late 60s to mid 70s.  Instrumental in each transition of the development of this music was Studio One records which happened to be the breeding ground for virtually every wicked riddim and artist of these times.”[50]   This quote from the article “Studio One – The Motown of Reggae” perfectly sums up what Studio One was to Reggae music and confirms my opinion as well.  Coxsone Dodd should be called the father of Reggae.  At every turn and transformation of Reggae music, Coxsone Dodd was there as an innovator.  Every major Reggae artist, at one time or another, stepped foot at 13 Brentford Road, Kingston, Jamaica where the biggest names in Reggae history fine-tuned their abilities and became who they are today.  “Studio One honed their skills, put some wicked production behind their vocals, and made them into international superstars who have forever changed the face of Reggae.”[51] 

In summary, I believe that if it wasn’t for Coxsone Dodd and Studio One, Reggae music would not be the huge success it is today.  Coxsone Dodd was the innovator of the modern day dancehall, created with the idea to use the old riddims and make new songs out of them; in addition, he brought young children into Studio One, put them under his wing, and taught them how to use their talents in a positive way.  Without this, we wouldn’t have the modern DJ, wouldn’t know what a “remix” is, and it could have taken years to find out who Bob Marley and the Wailers were.  One could go as far as saying that without Studio One, and more particularly Coxsone Dodd, Hip-Hop and Rap also wouldn’t be what it is today since Coxsone’s original idea of a DJ in the 1950s laid the foundation for what we know as Hip-Hop and Rap today.  Without these innovations and developments in Reggae music, Hip-hop and Rap might not exist today.

Furthermore, Coxsone Dodd was responsible for giving young artists and producers a chance to make a name for themselves and gave them a place to demonstrate to the world what they could do.    Studio One is also responsible for bringing Reggae music to an international level, where people all over the world are able to listen, dance, and enjoy the wonderful sound of Reggae music.  Without Coxsone Dodd and Studio One, we wouldn’t be talking about Reggae in the same way as we are today.  Studio One is synonymous with Reggae music.






[1] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 3

[2] Graham Reid, “JAMAICA’S STUDIO ONE AND CLEMENT DODD: The focal point of reggae,” Elsewhere 22 July 2009, 18 Nov. 2009 <>

[3] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 5-6

[4] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 3

[5] Michael Deibert, “From Kingston to Brooklyn,” Village Voice 6 March 2001, 17 Nov. 2009 <>

[6] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 6, 9

[7] “Coxsone Dodd” 15 Nov. 2009, 18 Nov. 2009 <>

[8] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 9-10

[9] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 10

[10] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 13-14

[11] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 14

[12] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 14

[13] Graham Reid, “JAMAICA’S STUDIO ONE AND CLEMENT DODD: The focal point of reggae,” Elsewhere 22 July 2009, 18 Nov. 2009 <>

[14] “Theophilus Beckford” 2 Oct. 2009, 29 Nov. 2009 <


[15] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 15

[16] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 17

[17] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 17

[18] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 26-27

[19] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 19-20

[20] Graham Reid, “JAMAICA’S STUDIO ONE AND CLEMENT DODD: The focal point of reggae,” Elsewhere 22 July 2009, 18 Nov. 2009 <>

[21] “The Skatalites Bio” 2009 <>

[22] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 24

[23] Kevin O’Brien Chang and Wayne Chen, Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music (Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 1998) 33

[24] Roger Steffens and Peter Simon, Reggae Scrapbook (San Rafael: Insight Editions, 2007) 16

[25] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 37

[26] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 37

[27] Roger Steffens and Peter Simon, Reggae Scrapbook (San Rafael: Insight Editions, 2007) 16

[28] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 41


[29] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 41, 46

[30] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 31

[31] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 31

[32] “The Wailing Wailers” 6 Nov. 2009, 18 Nov.2009 <>

[33] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 33, 37

[34] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 37

[35] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003)

[36] Brian Jahn and Tom Weber, Reggae Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age (New York: Da Capo Press, 1998) 235

[37] Brian Jahn and Tom Weber, Reggae Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age (New York: Da Capo Press, 1998) 235

[38]Studio One – The Motown of Reggae” Tings A Gwaan July 2004, 18 Nov. 2009

             < A Gwaan Vol. 2/Studio One - The Motown of Reggae>

[39] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 67

[40] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 74

[41]Studio One Riddims” Jammin Reggae Archives 17 Nov. 2009 <>

[42] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003)

[43]Studio One – The Motown of Reggae” Tings A Gwaan July 2004, 18 Nov. 2009

             < A Gwaan Vol. 2/Studio One - The Motown of Reggae>

[44] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 75

[45] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 75-76

[46] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 76

[47] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 76, 78

[48] Studio One Story: Booklet (Jamaica: Soul Jazz Records, 2003) 78

[49] Coxsone Dodd” 15 Nov. 2009, 18 Nov. 2009 <>

[50]Studio One – The Motown of Reggae” Tings A Gwaan July 2004, 18 Nov. 2009

             < A Gwaan Vol. 2/Studio One - The Motown of Reggae>

[51]Studio One – The Motown of Reggae” Tings A Gwaan July 2004, 18 Nov. 2009

             < A Gwaan Vol. 2/Studio One - The Motown of Reggae>